rubrica

Farmacoepidemiologia

  • Giuseppe Traversa1

  1. Istituto superiore di sanità, Roma

Ricerca bibliografica periodo 16 marzo 2012 – 31 maggio 2012

Per leggere le caratteristiche di questa ROUTINE di ricerca clicca qui

"Database: Pubmed/MEDline
Stringa: ((Pharmacoepidemiolog*[All] OR ""Pharmacoepidemiology""[Mesh]) OR ((“epidemiology”[Mesh] OR ""epidemiology""[subheading]) AND (""Pharmaceutical Preparations""[Mesh]))) AND (""italy""[MeSH Terms] OR ""italy""[All Fields] OR ital*[Title/Abstract] OR ita*[Language] OR ital*[ad]) AND (""2012/03/16""[PDat] : ""2012/05/31""[PDat]) "

Di ogni articolo è disponibile l'abstract. Per visualizzarlo basta cliccare sul titolo.

1. Khong TP, de Vries F, Goldenberg JS, Klungel OH, Robinson NJ, Ibáñez L, Petri H. Potential Impact of Benzodiazepine Use on the Rate of Hip Fractures in Five Large European Countries and the United States. Calcif Tissue Int. 2012 May 8. [Epub ahead of print]
Division of Pharmacoepidemiology and Clinical Pharmacology, Utrecht Institute for Pharmaceutical Sciences (UIPS), Utrecht University, Universiteitsweg 99, Utrecht, The Netherlands. 
Abstract
Benzodiazepine use increases the risk of falls and has been associated with an increased risk of hip fractures. Our aim was to estimate the possible population impact of the use of benzodiazepines on the rate of hip fracture in France, Germany, Italy, Spain, the United Kingdom, and the United States. We conducted a literature review to estimate the pooled relative risk (RR) for hip fractures and use of benzodiazepines. Prevalence rates of benzodiazepine use in 2009 were calculated for each country using the IMS MIDAS database and three public databases in Denmark, the Netherlands, and Norway. Both the RR and prevalence rates were used for calculation of population attributable risks (PARs) of hip fractures associated with benzodiazepine use. The literature review showed an increased risk of hip fractures in benzodiazepine users (RR = 1.4, 95 % CI 1.2-1.6). Rate of benzodiazepine use showed considerable differences between countries, ranging from 4.7 % to 22.3 % of population ever in a 1-year period. These are reflected in results for the PARs; estimated attributions of benzodiazepines to the rate of hip fractures were 1.8 %, 95 % CI 1.1-2.6 (Germany); 2.0 %, 95 % CI 1.2-2.8 (United Kingdom); 5.2 %, 95 % CI 3.2-7.3 (Italy); 7.4 %, 95 % CI 4.5-10.0 (France); 8.0 %, 95 % CI 4.9-11.0 (United States); and 8.2 %, 95 % CI 5.1-12.0 (Spain). PAR estimates suggest that the potential attribution of benzodiazepine use on the population rate of hip fractures in the five specified European countries and the United States varies between 1.8 % and 8.2 %. During the next phase of the IMI-PROTECT study, a comparison with individual patient data will show whether this approach is valid.
2. Robinson M, Stilianakis NI, Drossinos Y. Spatial dynamics of airborne infectious diseases. J Theor Biol. 2012 Mar 21;297:116-26. Epub 2011 Dec 23.
Joint Research Centre, European Commission, I-21027 Ispra (VA), Italy. marguerite.robinson@jrc.ec.europa.eu 
Abstract
Disease outbreaks, such as those of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome in 2003 and the 2009 pandemic A(H1N1) influenza, have highlighted the potential for airborne transmission in indoor environments. Respirable pathogen-carrying droplets provide a vector for the spatial spread of infection with droplet transport determined by diffusive and convective processes. An epidemiological model describing the spatial dynamics of disease transmission is presented. The effects of an ambient airflow, as an infection control, are incorporated leading to a delay equation, with droplet density dependent on the infectious density at a previous time. It is found that small droplets (∼0.4μm) generate a negligible infectious force due to the small viral load and the associated duration they require to transmit infection. In contrast, larger droplets (∼4μm) can lead to an infectious wave propagating through a fully susceptible population or a secondary infection outbreak for a localized susceptible population. Droplet diffusion is found to be an inefficient mode of droplet transport leading to minimal spatial spread of infection. A threshold air velocity is derived, above which disease transmission is impaired even when the basic reproduction number R(0) exceeds unity.
3. Longo F, De Filippis L, Zivi A, Vitolo D, Del Signore E, Gori B, Diso D, Anile M, Venuta F, De Giacomo T, Coloni CF. Efficacy and tolerability of long-acting octreotide in the treatment of thymic tumors: results of a pilot trial. Am J Clin Oncol. 2012 Apr;35(2):105-9.
Department of Clinical Oncology, University "La Sapienza", Rome, Italy. flavia.longo@uniroma1.it
Abstract
OBJECTIVES: Octreotide is a somatostatin analog, long-acting formulations of which have been used experimentally for the treatment of patients with invasive tumors and/or residual disease after conventional therapies. The objective of this retrospective study was to evaluate the efficacy of long-acting octreotide (Sandostatin LAR) for the treatment of thymic tumors, with a primary efficacy end point of progression-free survival. METHODS: Between 1994 and 2010, 44 patients with thymic malignancies were evaluated. Twenty-seven patients underwent an OctreoScan, and 12 OctreoScan-positive patients were treated with long-acting octreotide at a dose of 20 mg, given as an intramuscular injection, every 2 weeks. RESULTS: Treatment with long-acting octreotide gave the following results: 3 cases of partial response (25%), 5 cases of stable disease (42%), and 4 cases of progressive disease (33%), with an average progression-free survival of 8 months (range, 3 to 21). Treatment compliance and tolerability were good for all evaluated patients. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study confirm the somatostatin receptor as a valid target for the treatment of thymic malignancies. Overall, therapy with long-acting somatostatin analogs seems to be safe and effective.

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