rubrica

Disuguaglianze

  • Chiara Marinacci1

  1. S.C. a D.U. Scuola di Sanità Pubblica, ASL TO3

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Ricerca bibliografica periodo 02 agosto 2011 – 15 ottobre 2011

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Database: Pubmed/MEDline
Stringa: ("socioeconomic factors"[MeSH Terms] OR "social class"[MeSH Terms] or "educational status"[MESH terms] OR inequalities[Title/Abstract] OR inequities[Title/Abstract] OR socioeconomic[Title/Abstract]) OR socio-economic[Title/Abstract]) AND "italy"[All Fields] AND ("2011/08/02"[PDAT]: "2011/10/15"[PDAT])

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1 Fiorillo D, Sabatini F. Quality and quantity: The role of social interactions in self-reported individual health. Soc Sci Med. 2011 Oct 1. [Epub ahead of print]
University of Naples Parthenope, Department of Economic Studies, Italy; University of York, Health Econometrics and Data Group, UK.
Abstract
The public health literature on the detrimental effects of social isolation has shown that the quantity of social connections is positively correlated with individual health. Drawing on pooled cross-sectional data, we test this hypothesis on a representative sample of the Italian population. Our findings show that, in addition to the quantity of interactions, it is their quality - as measured by subjective satisfaction derived from relationships with friends - that works as the best predictor of self-reported health. The frequency of meetings with friends is significantly and positively correlated with good health in all regressions. However, when we add our measure of the quality of relationships to the probit equations, the statistical significance of "quantitative" measures is scaled down. Satisfaction with relationships with friends exhibits a positive and highly significant coefficient. Results of the multivariate probit analysis point out the potential role of unobservable variables suggesting the existence of endogeneity problems which require further investigation. We point out the existence of health disparities based on socio-economic status. There is a higher probability that poorer and less educated individuals report poor health conditions. The risk is even higher for unemployed and retired workers. This paper contributes to the literature in two substantive dimensions. This is the first empirical study of the relationship between social interactions and health in Italy. Second, we add to previous empirical studies by taking into account not only the frequency of various kinds of meetings but also indicators of their "quality", as measured by agents' subjective satisfaction with their social participation. The reliability of the analysis also benefits from the uniqueness and comprehensiveness of our dataset, which tries to overcome a structural deficiency in Italian data by merging information on agents' behaviours and perceptions with data on household income.

Breve commento a cura di Chiara Marinacci
I Contributo al nesso tra salute e diseguaglianze sociali, lo studio si concentra sul dibattuto ruolo del capitale sociale e mostra come la qualità delle relazioni sociali si associ a buona salute percepita. Il disegno trasversale di tali valutazioni non permette di trarre indicazioni univoche di causalità. L’uso di procedure di matching statistico tra la serie delle Indagini Multiscopo Istat e quella dell’Indagine sui Bilanci delle Famiglie Italiane, condotta dalla banca d’Italia, rappresenta un elemento di originalità.

2. Di Cosmo C, Milfont TL, Robinson E, Denny SJ, Ward C, Crengle S, Ameratunga SN. Immigrant status and acculturation influence substance use among New Zealand youth. Aust N Z J Public Health. 2011 Oct;35(5):434-441. doi:10.1111/j.1753-6405.2011.00758.x.
School of Specialization in Health Psychology, Department of Psychology, University of Bologna, Italy Centre for Applied Cross-Cultural Research, School of Psychology, Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand Section of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Population Health, University of Auckland, New Zealand Department of Community Paediatrics, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Auckland, New Zealand Centre for Applied Cross-Cultural Research, School of Psychology, Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand Te Kupenga Hauora Māori, School of Population Health, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Auckland, New Zealand Section of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Population Health, University of Auckland, New Zealand.
Abstract
OBJECTIVE:
To investigate the associations between generational status, acculturation and substance use among immigrant and non-immigrant secondary school students in New Zealand.
METHODS:
A nationally representative sample of secondary school students in New Zealand was selected using a two-stage cluster sample design. Of the 8,999 students in the sample, 23.81% were first-generation immigrants and 20.90% were second-generation immigrants; the remaining 55.29% students are collectively referred to as 'non-immigrant' peers. Logistic regression models adjusted the associations of interest for age, gender, ethnicity, socioeconomic status and experience of ethnic discrimination.
RESULTS:
First and second-generation immigrants showed significantly lower risks of smoking cigarettes compared with their non-immigrant peers. Similar trends were apparent for consuming alcohol and marijuana weekly. The inclusion of some characteristics suggestive of acculturation in multivariable models did not influence the relationship between generational status and smoking cigarettes, but attenuated the apparent protective effect of being a first-generation immigrant with regard to alcohol and marijuana use.
CONCLUSION AND IMPLICATIONS:
The study shows the lower likelihood of substance use among newer immigrants in a nationally representative sample of New Zealand youth. Policies and health programs that build on this positive profile and reduce the risk of adverse changes over time require attention.
3. Chiatti C, Barbadoro P, Marigliano A, Ricciardi A, Di Stanislao F, Prospero E. . Determinants of influenza vaccination among the adult and older Italian population with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: A secondary analysis of the multipurpose ISTAT Survey on Health and Health Care use. Hum Vaccin. 2011 Oct 1;7(10). [Epub ahead of print]
Italian National Institute of Health and Science on Aging; Ancona Italy.
Abstract
We analyzed seasonal flu vaccination rates among the Italian population suffering from Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) in order to identify socio-demographic and clinical determinants for vaccination. We used data from the survey "Health and health care use in Italy", which interviewed 5,935 persons (age 15 - 102 years) suffering from COPD in the period 2004-2005. For each respondent, information on socioeconomic and health conditions, smoking status and patterns of health care utilization were retrieved. After bivariate analysis, we used two multilevel regression models to assess determinants of vaccination among the adult and the older Italian population. Overall 30.5% of adults (N=670) and 74.8% (N=2,796) of older people reported being vaccinated against seasonal flu. After controlling for potential confounders, older age increases the odds of vaccine uptake. Single marital status among the older people, smoking and not having contact with GPs in both age groups, are factors associated with non vaccination. Higher-educated elderly are less likely to be vaccinated, while coverage is higher among the wealthier adults. Vaccine coverage among adults with COPD in Italy remains low, especially among those with no comorbidities, and aged less than 44 years. It is only in older age that vaccination rates increase substantially. We found several risk factors for non vaccination, such as smoking, single marital status, and not having contacts with GPs, which should be considered in developing strategies to increase the coverage of influenza vaccine among people with COPD in Italy.
4. Donisi V, Jones J, Pertile R, Salazzari D, Grigoletti L, Tansella M, Amaddeo F. The difficult task of predicting the costs of community-based mental health care. A comprehensive case register study. Epidemiol Psychiatr Sci. 2011 Sep;20(3):245-56.
Section of Psychiatry and Clinical Psychology, Department of Public Health and Community Medicine, University of Verona, Verona, Italy. valeria.donisi@univr.it
Abstract
strong> BACKGROUND:
Previous studies have attempted to forecast the costs of mental health care, using clinical and individual variables; the inclusion of ecological measures could improve the knowledge of predictors of psychiatric service utilisation and costs to support clinical and strategic decision-making.
METHODS:
Using a Psychiatric Case Register (PCR), all patients with an ICD-10 psychiatric diagnosis, who had at least one contact with community-based psychiatric services in the Verona Health District, Northern Italy, were included in the study (N = 4558). For each patient, one year's total cost of care was calculated by merging service contact data with unit cost estimates and clinical and socio-demographic variables were collected. A socio-economic status (SES) index was developed, as a proxy of deprivation, using census data. Multilevel multiple regression models, considering socio-demographic and clinical characteristics of patients as well as socioeconomic local characteristics, were estimated to predict costs.
RESULTS:
The mean annual cost for all patients was 2,606.11 Euros; patients with an ongoing episode of care and with psychosis presented higher mean costs. Previous psychiatric history represented the most significant predictor of cost (36.99% R2 increase) and diagnosis was also a significant predictor but explained only 4.96% of cost variance. Psychiatric costs were uniform throughout the Verona Health District and SES characteristics alone contributed towards less than 1% of the cost variance.
CONCLUSIONS:
For all patients of community-based psychiatric services, a comprehensive model, including both patients' individual characteristics and socioeconomic local status, was able to predict 43% of variance in costs of care.
5. Montirosso R, Provenzi L, Calciolari G, Borgatti R; NEO-ACQUA Study Group. Measuring maternal stress and perceived support in 25 Italian NICUs. Acta Paediatr. 2011 Aug 9. doi: 10.1111/j.1651-2227.2011.02440.x. [Epub ahead of print]
Centre for the study of social emotional development of the at risk infant, Scientific Institute "E. Medea", Bosisio Parini, Lecco, Italy NICU, Manzoni Hospital, Lecco, Italy Department of Child and Adolescent Neurology and Psychiatry, Scientific Institute "E. Medea", Bosisio Parini, Lecco, Italy.
Abstract
Aims:
To determine the validity and reliability of the Parental Stressor Scale: Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (PSS: NICU) and the Nurse Parental Support Tool (NPST) for use with Italian parents; to investigate to which extent demographic variables and/or situational factors affect NICU-related maternal stress.
Methods:
Mothers (N = 156) of very preterm (VPT) infants from 25 Italian NICUs completed a socio-demographic form, the PSS: NICU and the NPST at discharge. Psychometric properties of both tools were evaluated.
Results:
High internal consistency and split-half reliability were found for both measures. The multi-dimensional structure of the PSS:NICU was confirmed. Alteration in parental role emerged as the greatest source of NICU-related stress. Length of stay in NICU and familiar socio-economic status explained partial variance in the PSS: NICU scores. NPST score mitigates the stress because of the infant's appearance and behaviour, but not that related to the parental role alteration.
Conclusion:
PSS: NICU and NPST demonstrated adequate psychometric properties in a large sample of Italian mothers. The need for a psychologically informed support to NICU mothers is suggested.

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