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Cause ed epidemiologia analitica

  • Lorenzo Richiardi1

  1. Università di Torino

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Ricerca bibliografica periodo dal 2 gennaio 2012 al 15 marzo 2012

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Stringa: ("italy"[MeSH Terms] OR "italy"[All Fields]) AND ("2011/11/16"[PDat] : "2012/03/15"[PDat]) AND (“Case-Control” [All fields] OR “Cohort”[all fileds] OR “Cross-sectional”[All fields]) AND ("risk"[All Fields] OR "association"[all fields] OR "epidemiologic factors"[MeSH Terms]) and (“odds ratios”[all fields] OR “odds ratio”[all fields] OR “ORs”[all fields] OR “rate ratio”[all fileds] OR “rate ratios”[all fileds] OR “RR”[all fileds] OR “RRs” [all fileds] OR “risk ratio”[all fields] OR “risk ratios”[all fields] OR “prevalence ratio*” [all fields] OR “prevalence ratios” [all fields] OR “hazard ratio” [all fields] OR “hazard ratios” [all fields] OR “HR”[all fields] OR “HRs”[all fields]) NOT "Clinical Trials as Topic"[Mesh] NOT "Sensitivity and Specificity"[Mesh] NOT "Comorbidity"[Mesh] NOT "Predictive Value of Tests"[Mesh] NOT "Prognosis"[Mesh] NOT "Review"[publication type] NOT "Population Surveillance"[Mesh]
1. Sironi M, Biasin M, Cagliani R, Forni D, De Luca M, Saulle I, Lo Caputo S, Mazzotta F, Macías J, Pineda JA, Caruz A, Clerici M. A common polymorphism in TLR3 confers natural resistance to HIV-1 infection. J Immunol. 2012 Jan 15;188(2):818-23. Epub 2011 Dec 14.
Scientific Institute for Recovery and Care E. Medea, 23842 Bosisio Parini, Italy.

Abstract
TLR3 recognizes dsRNA and activates antiviral immune responses through the production of inflammatory cytokines and type I IFNs. Genetic association studies have provided evidence concerning the role of a polymorphism in TLR3 (rs3775291, Leu412Phe) in viral infection susceptibility. We genotyped rs3775291 in a population of Spanish HIV-1-exposed seronegative (HESN) individuals who remain HIV seronegative despite repeated exposure through i.v. injection drug use (IDU-HESN individuals) as witnessed by their hepatitis C virus seropositivity. The frequency of individuals carrying at least one 412Phe allele was significantly higher in IDU-HESN individuals compared with that of a matched control sample (odds ratio for a dominant model = 1.87; 95% confidence interval, 1.06-3.34; p = 0.023). To replicate this finding, we analyzed a cohort of Italian, sexually HESN individuals. Similar results were obtained: the frequency of individuals carrying at least one 412Phe allele was significantly higher compared with that of a matched control sample (odds ratio, 1.79; 95% confidence interval, 1.05-3.08; p = 0.029). In vitro infection assays showed that in PBMCs carrying the 412Phe allele, HIV-1(Ba-L) replication was significantly reduced (p = 0.025) compared with that of Leu/Leu homozygous samples and was associated with a higher expression of factors suggestive of a state of immune activation (IL-6, CCL3, CD69). Similarly, stimulation of PBMCs with a TLR3 agonist indicated that the presence of the 412Phe allele results in a significantly increased expression of CD69 and higher production of proinflammatory cytokines including IL-6 and CCL3. The data of this study indicate that a common TLR3 allele confers immunologically mediated protection from HIV-1 and suggest the potential use of TLR3 triggering in HIV-1 immunotherapy.

2. Fortes C, Mastroeni S, Alessandra S, Lindau J, Farchi S, Franco F, Pacifici R, Zuccaro P, Mazzotti E, Pasquini P, Borgia P. The combination of depressive symptoms and smoking shorten life expectancy among the aged. Int Psychogeriatr. 2011 Dec 12:1-7. [Epub ahead of print]
Clinical Epidemiology Unit, IDI-IRCSS, Rome, Italy.

Abstract
Background:
Depression is a potential risk factor for mortality among the aged and it is also associated with other chronic diseases and unhealthy lifestyles that may also affect mortality. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between depressive symptoms and mortality, controlling for health, nutritional status, and life-style factors.
Methods: A cohort of elderly people (N = 167) was followed-up for ten years. Information on socio-demographic characteristics, medical history, smoking, and alcohol consumption was collected. The primary outcome was all-cause mortality; the secondary outcome was cancer-specific mortality. The Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15) was used to assess depression. Using a multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression, we examined the association between depressive symptoms and mortality.
Results:
Elderly people with depression (scoring above the depression cut-off of 7) had a 53% increased risk of mortality (relative risk (RR) 1.53; 95%CI: 1.05-2.24) compared to non-depressed subjects. The combination of depressive symptoms with smoking was associated with a particularly higher risk of mortality (RR: 2.61; 95%CI: 1.28-5.31), after controlling for potential confounders.
Conclusions:
Depressive symptoms are associated with a significantly increased risk of all-cause mortality. The combination of depressive symptoms and smoking shorten life expectancy among the aged. PMID: 22152085 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

3. Pizzi C, De Stavola BL, Pearce N, Lazzarato F, Ghiotti P, Merletti F, Richiardi L. Selection bias and patterns of confounding in cohort studies: the case of the NINFEA web-based birth cohort. J Epidemiol Community Health. 2011 Dec 6. [Epub ahead of print]
CeRMS and CPO-Piemonte, University of Turin, Turin, Italy.

Abstract
Background
Several studies have examined the effects of sample selection on the exposure-outcome association estimates in cohort studies, but the reasons why this selection may induce bias have not been fully explored.AimsTo investigate how sample selection of the web-based NINFEA birth cohort may change the confounding patterns present in the source population.
Methods
The characteristics of the NINFEA participants (n=1105) were compared with those of the wider source population-the Piedmont Birth Registry (PBR)-(n=36 092), and the association of two exposures (parity and educational level) with two outcomes (low birth weight and birth by caesarean section), while controlling for other risk factors, was studied. Specifically the associations among measured risk factors within each dataset were examined and the exposure-outcome estimates compared in terms of relative ORs.
Results
The associations of educational level with the other risk factors (alcohol consumption, folic acid intake, maternal age, pregnancy weight gain, previous miscarriages) partly differed between PBR and NINFEA. This was not observed for parity. Overall, the exposure-outcome estimates derived from NINFEA only differed moderately from those obtained in PBR, with relative ORs ranging between 0.74 and 1.03.
Conclusions
Sample selection in cohort studies may alter the confounding patterns originally present in the general population. However, this does not necessarily introduce selection bias in the exposure-outcome estimates, as sample selection may reduce some of the residual confounding present in the general population.

4. Tosato M, Lukas A, van der Roest HG, Danese P, Antocicco M, Finne-Soveri H, Nikolaus T, Landi F, Bernabei R, Onder G. Association of pain with behavioral and psychiatric symptoms among nursing home residents with cognitive impairment: results from the SHELTER study. Pain. 2012 Feb;153(2):305-10. Epub 2011 Nov 16.
Centro Medicina dell'Invecchiamento, Università Cattolica Sacro Cuore, Dipartimento di Scienze Gerontologiche, Geriatriche e Fisiatriche, Largo F. Vito 1, 00168 Rome, Italy. Comment in Pain. 2012 Feb;153(2):261-2.

Abstract
The etiology of behavioral and psychiatric symptoms is generally considered to be multifactorial, and these symptoms often indicate a need for care or assistance, which may include the presence of uncontrolled pain. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to assess the association of pain with behavioral and psychiatric symptoms in a population of nursing home (NH) residents with cognitive impairment in Europe. Data are from the SHELTER project, which contains information on NH residents in 8 countries. Pain was defined as any type of physical pain or discomfort in any part of the body in the 3 days before the assessment. The mean age of 2822 cognitively impaired residents entering the study was 84.1 (standard deviation 9.1)years, and 2110 (74.8%) were women. Of the total sample, 538 residents (19.1%) presented with pain. After adjusting for potential confounders, pain was significantly and positively associated with socially inappropriate behavior (odds ratio [OR] 1.37; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.04-1.80), resistance to care (OR 1.41; 95% CI 1.08-1.83), abnormal thought process (OR 1.48; 95% CI 1.16-1.90), and delusions (OR 1.48; 95% CI 1.07-2.03). A borderline inverse association was observed with wandering (OR 0.74; 95% CI 0.55-1.00). In conclusion, this cross-sectional study provides evidence from a large sample of frail elderly showing an association between pain and behavioral and psychiatric symptoms. Treatment models that put together assessment and treatment of pain and evaluate their effect on behavioral and psychiatric symptoms are needed.

5. Beretta L, Rueda B, Marchini M, Santaniello A, Simeón CP, Fonollosa V, Caronni M, Rios-Fernandez R, Carreira P, Rodriguez-Rodriguez L; Spanish Systemic Sclerosis Group, Moreno A, López-Nevot MA, Escalera A, González-Escribano MF, Martin J, Scorza R. Analysis of Class II human leucocyte antigens in Italian and Spanish systemic sclerosis. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2012 Jan;51(1):52-9. Epub 2011 Nov 15.
Referral Center for Systemic Autoimmune Diseases, Fondazione IRCCS Ca' Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico and University of Milan, Via Pace 9, 20122 Milan, Italy. lorberimm@hotmail.com

Abstract
OBJECTIVE:
To determine the role of Class II HLAs in SSc patients from Italy and Spain and in SSc patients of Caucasian ancestry.
METHODS:
Nine hundred and forty-four SSc patients (Italy 392 patients; Spain 452 patients) and 1320 ethnically matched healthy controls (Italy 398 patients; Spain 922 patients) were genotyped up to the fourth digit by PCR with sequence-specific oligonucleotides for HLA-DRB1, DQA1 and DQB1 loci. Patients included 390 ACA-positive and 254 anti-topo I-positive subjects. Associations between SSc or SSc-specific antibodies and HLA alleles or HLA haplotypes were sought via the chi-square test after 10 000-fold permutation testing. A meta-analysis including this study cohort and other Caucasoids samples was also conducted.
RESULTS:
In both the cohorts, the strongest association was observed between the HLA-DRB1*1104 allele and SSc or anti-topo I antibodies. The HLA-DRB1*1104 -DQA1*0501 -DQB1*0301 haplotype was overrepresented in Italian [odds ratio (OR) = 2.069, 95% asymptotic CIs (CI(95)) 1.486, 2.881; P < 0.001] and in Spanish patients (OR = 6.707, CI(95) 3.974, 11.319; P < 0.001) as well as in anti-topo-positive patients: Italy (OR = 2.642, CI(95) 1.78, 3.924; P < 0.001) and Spain (OR = 20.625, CI(95) 11.536, 36.876; P < 0.001). In both the populations we also identified an additional risk allele (HLA-DQB1*03) and a protective allele (HLA-DQB1*0501) in anti-topo-positive patients. The meta-analysis showed different statistically significant associations, the most interesting being the differential association between HLA-DRB1*01 alleles and ACAs (OR = 1.724, CI(95) 1.482, 2.005; P < 0.001) or topo I antibodies (OR = 0.5, CI(95) 0.384, 0.651; P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS:
We describe multiple robust associations between SSc and HLA Class II antigens in Caucasoids that may help to understand the genetic architecture of SSc.

6. Grandone A, Perrone L, Cirillo G, Di Sessa A, Corona AM, Amato A, Cresta N, Romano T, Miraglia del Giudice E. Impact of phosphodiesterase 8B gene rs4704397 variation on thyroid homeostasis in childhood obesity. Eur J Endocrinol. 2012 Feb;166(2):255-60. Epub 2011 Nov 14.
Department of Pediatrics F. Fede, Seconda Università degli Studi di Napoli, Via Luigi De Crecchio 2, 80138 Napoli, Italy.

Abstract
CONTEXT:
Several studies demonstrated that obese children have higher TSH than normal-weight children. The polymorphism rs4704397 in the phosphodiesterase 8B (PDE8B) gene showed an association with TSH.
OBJECTIVES:
i) To assess the effect of PDE8B on TSH in obese children; ii) to dissect the role of obesity degree in modulating this association; and iii) to stratify the individual risk to show hyperthyrotropinaemia according to PDE8B genotype.
METHODS:
Eight hundred and sixty-seven Italian obese children were investigated. Clinical data and thyroid hormones were evaluated and the PDE8B rs4704397 was genotyped.
RESULTS:
PDE8B A/A homozygous subjects showed higher TSH (P=0.0005) compared with A/G or G/G. No differences were found for peripheral thyroid hormones. Among A/A children, 22% had hyperthyrotropinaemia, compared with 11.6% of heterozygotes and 10.8% of G/G (P=0.0008). Consistently, A/A had an odds ratio (OR) to show abnormal TSH level of 2.25 (P=0.0004). Body mass index (BMI) appeared correlated with TSH (P=0.0001), but the strength of the effect of PDE8B on TSH was independent of BMI (P=0.1). Children were subdivided into six groups according to obesity degree and genotypes. PDE8B A/A with BMI SDS above 3 had the highest OR (OR 2.6, P=0.0015) to have hyperthyrotropinaemia, whereas G/G with BMI SDS below 3 showed the lowest possibilities (OR 0.3, P=0.005).
CONCLUSIONS:
We have shown: i) in obese children, PDE8B is associated with TSH; ii) the interaction between adiposity and PDE8B on TSH is not synergistic, but follows an additive model; and iii) impact of this association in the stratification of individual risk to have hyperthyrotropinaemia.

7. Perotto M, Panero F, Gruden G, Fornengo P, Lorenzati B, Barutta F, Ghezzo G, Amione C, Cavallo-Perin P, Bruno G. Obesity is associated with lower mortality risk in elderly diabetic subjects: the Casale Monferrato study. Acta Diabetol. 2011 Nov 9. [Epub ahead of print]
Department of Internal Medicine, University of Turin, Corso Dogliotti 14, I-10126, Turin, Italy.

Abstract
The relationship between obesity and mortality in people with type 2 diabetes has not been definitely assessed. We have examined this issue in a well-characterized population-based cohort of Mediterranean diabetic people. Standardized anthropometric data from the population-based Casale Monferrato Study have been prospectively analyzed. The cohort included 1,475 people (62.6% aged ≥65 years) who had been recruited in 1991 and followed-up to December 31, 2006. Cox proportional hazards modeling was employed to estimate the independent associations between all-cause and cardiovascular mortality and BMI. Out of 1,475 people, 972 deaths occurred during a 15-year follow-up. Cox regression analyses showed that with respect to BMI <24.2 kg/m(2), values of 30.0 kg/m(2) and over were associated with lower all-cause and cardiovascular mortality risk (HR = 0.68, 95% CI 0.56-0.85, P for trend = 0.001; HR = 0.59, 0.44-0.80, P for trend = 0.002), independently of classical and new risk factors. As interaction between age and BMI was significant, we performed a stratified analysis by age, providing evidence that our finding was entirely due to a significant protective effect of BMI of 30.0 kg/m(2) and over in the elderly (all-cause mortality HR = 0.75, 95% CI 0.58-0.96; cardiovascular mortality HR = 0.67, 95% CI 0.45-0.95). In contrast, obesity was not significantly associated with mortality risk in diabetic subjects aged <65 years. Results were confirmed even excluding from the analysis individuals who died within 2 years of follow-up, smokers and those with CHD. In Mediterranean diabetic people aged ≥65 years, obesity is significantly associated with lower 15-year mortality risk. In contrast, it was not significantly associated with mortality risk in diabetic subjects aged <65 years. As more than two-thirds of people with type 2 diabetes are elderly, our findings, if confirmed, could have clinical implications.

8. Di Renzo GC, Giardina I, Rosati A, Clerici G, Torricelli M, Petraglia F; Italian Preterm Network Study Group. Maternal risk factors for preterm birth: a country-based population analysis. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2011 Dec;159(2):342-6. Epub 2011 Oct 27.
Collaborators: Tranquilli AL, Ettore G, Greco P, Ferrazzi E, Facchinetti F, Todros T, Alberico S. Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Perugia, Perugia, Italy. direnzo@unipg.it

Abstract
OBJECTIVE:
The aim of this study was to identify maternal risk factors for spontaneous preterm birth (PTB) compared to delivery at term, in order to recognize high risk women and to provide a global overview of the Italian situation.
STUDY DESIGN:
A multicenter, observational and retrospective, cross- sectional study was designed. The study population comprised 7634 women recruited in 9 different University Maternity Hospitals in Italy. The main criteria for inclusion were: women having had vaginal preterm or term spontaneous delivery in each participating centre during the study period. The records related to deliveries occurring between April and December 2008. A multivariable logistic regression was employed to identify independent predictors of spontaneous preterm birth. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were reported with two-tailed probability (p) values. Statistical calculations were carried out using SAS version 9.1. A two-tailed p-value of 0.05 was used to define statistical significant results.
RESULTS:
A significant increased risk of PTB was found in women with BMI>25 (OR=1.662; 95% CI=1.033-2.676; p-value=0.0365) and in women employed in heavy work (OR=1.947; 95% CI=1.182-3.207; p-value=0.0089). Moreover there was a significant association between PTB and previous reproductive history. In fact a history of previous abortion (OR=1.954; 95% CI=1.162-3.285; p-value=0.0116) or previous cesarean section (OR=2.904; 95% CI=1.066-7.910; p-value=0.0371) was positively correlated to the increased risk of PTB and an important statistically significant association was calculated between PTB and previous pre-term delivery (OR=3.412; 95% CI=1.342-8.676; p-value=0.0099). All the other covariates examined as potential risk factors for PTB were not found to be statistically significantly related (p-value>0.05).
CONCLUSIONS:
The present study, applied to a substantial sample of Italian population, demonstrates that there are peculiar risk factors for spontaneous PTB in the Italian population examined. It shows an association between preterm delivery and certain maternal factors as: BMI, employment, previous abortions, previous PTBs and previous cesarean section.

Commento a cura di Lorenzo Richiardi
La nascita pre-termine (prima della trentasettesima settimana) ha un forte valore clinico sia a breve che a lungo termine. Diversi fattori sono stati associati con un aumento di rischio di parto pretermine e molti altri devono ancora essere identificati. Questo studio italiano ha valutato più di 7600 nati con 338 casi di nati pretermine. Diversi fattori materni erano associati con un aumento di rischio di parto pretermine, tra cui l’indice di massa corporea, il tipo di occupazione ed esiti riproduttivi precedenti. /span>

9. Beghi E, Pupillo E, Messina P, Giussani G, Chiò A, Zoccolella S, Moglia C, Corbo M, Logroscino G; EURALS Group. Coffee and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: a possible preventive role. Am J Epidemiol. 2011 Nov 1;174(9):1002-8. Epub 2011 Sep 26.
Laboratory of Neurological Disorders, ‘‘Mario Negri’’ Institute, Via G. la Masa 19, 20156 Milano, Italy. ettore.beghi@marionegri.it

Abstract
The relation between coffee intake and risk of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) was investigated in 377 newly diagnosed ALS patients from 4 Italian population-based registries in the European ALS Consortium (EURALS Group) (2007-2010). For each patient, 2 age- and sex-matched hospital controls were selected, one from a neurology department and one from a nonneurologic department. Two additional healthy control groups were identified from local general practitioners' (GPs') lists (n = 99) and residents of the same area as a cancer cohort (n = 7,057). Coffee intake was defined in terms of status (ever consuming coffee daily for ≥6 months vs. never), duration, and history (never, former, or current). Ever coffee drinkers comprised 74.7% of ALS patients, 80.4% of neurologic controls, 85.6% of nonneurologic controls (P = 0.0004), 88.9% of GP controls (P = 0.0038), and 86.0% of cancer cohort controls (P < 0.0001). Current coffee drinkers comprised 60.2% of ALS patients, 70.2% of neurologic controls (P = 0.0294), 76.4% of nonneurologic controls (P < 0.0001), and 82.3% of GP controls (P = 0.0002); duration of intake was ≥30 years for 62.3%, 67.7%, 74.7%, and 72.6%. ALS patients had lower lifetime coffee exposure: Odds ratios were 0.7 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.5, 1.1), 0.6 (95% CI: 0.4, 0.8), and 0.4 (95% CI: 0.2, 0.9) in comparison with neurologic, nonneurologic, and GP controls, respectively. In current (vs. never) coffee drinkers, odds ratios were 0.7 (95% CI: 0.5, 1.0), 0.5 (95% CI: 0.3, 0.7), and 0.4 (95% CI: 0.2, 0.8), respectively. These findings provide epidemiologic evidence of an inverse correlation between coffee intake and ALS risk.

10. Zavattari P, Loche A, Pilia S, Ibba A, Moi L, Guzzetti C, Casini MR, Loche S. rs9939609 in the FTO gene is associated with obesity but not with several biochemical parameters in Sardinian obese children. Ann Hum Genet. 2011 Nov;75(6):648-54. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-1809.2011.00674.x. Epub 2011 Sep 14.
Servizio di Endocrinologia Pediatrica, Ospedale Microcitemico - ASL Cagliari, Italy.

Abstract
Several studies have reported an association of the intronic single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs9939609 of the fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) gene with obesity and with a number of obesity-related features. We studied the association of rs9939609 with obesity in 912 obese children and adolescents (426 males and 486 females, mean ± SD age 10.5 ± 3.3 years) and in 543 normal weight subjects. A number of biochemical and clinical parameters was also evaluated in 700 of these patients. In the obese group, mean body mass index standard deviation score (BMI-SDS) was similar between the three genotypes. The A allele was present in 55% of the patients' and in 43% of controls' chromosomes. The distribution of heterozygotes was similar between patients and controls (47%), while the distribution of AA homozygotes was significantly higher in patients (31% vs. 20%). Logistic regression analysis on the genotypes yielded a χ(2) of 35.5 with an odds ratio of 1.6 (CI = 1.3-1.8), P < 1 × 10(-5) . None of the clinical and metabolic parameters tested was associated with the genotype. In conclusion, we have confirmed the strong association between FTO and obesity, and shown that only AA homozygotes are predisposed to develop obesity while TT homozygotes might be protected. Finally, we found no association between rs9939609 and a number of obesity-related abnormalities.

11. Dieudé P, Bouaziz M, Guedj M, Riemekasten G, Airò P, Müller M, Cusi D, Matucci-Cerinic M, Melchers I, Koenig W, Salvi E, Wichmann HE, Cuomo G, Hachulla E, Diot E, Hunzelmann N, Caramaschi P, Mouthon L, Riccieri V, Distler J, Tarner I, Avouac J, Meyer O, Kahan A, Chiocchia G, Boileau C, Allanore Y. Evidence of the contribution of the X chromosome to systemic sclerosis susceptibility: association with the functional IRAK1 196Phe/532Ser haplotype. Arthritis Rheum. 2011 Dec;63(12):3979-87. doi: 10.1002/art.30640.
Paris Diderot University, AP-HP, INSERM U699, Paris, France. philippe.dieude@bch.aphp.fr

Abstract
OBJECTIVE:
Several autoimmune disorders, including systemic sclerosis (SSc), are characterized by a strong sex bias. To date, it is not known whether genes on the sex chromosomes influence SSc susceptibility. Recently, an IRAK1 haplotype that contains the 196Phe functional variant (rs1059702), located on Xq28, was found to confer susceptibility to systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). This study was undertaken to test for an association between SSc and the IRAK1 SLE risk haplotype.
METHODS:
We tested for an association with the IRAK1 SLE risk haplotype in a discovery set of 849 SSc patients and 625 controls. IRAK1 rs1059702 was further genotyped in a replication set, which included Caucasian women from Italy (493 SSc patients and 509 controls) and Germany (466 SSc patients and 1,083 controls).
RESULTS:
An association between the IRAK1 haplotype and SSc was detected in the discovery set. In both the discovery and replication sets, the rs1059702 TT genotype was found to be associated with specific SSc subsets, highlighting a potential contribution to disease severity. A meta-analysis provided evidence of an association of both the T allele and TT genotype with the overall disease, with an odds ratio (OR) of 1.20 and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) of 1.06-1.35 for the T allele (P = 0.003) and an OR of 1.49 and 95% CI of 1.06-2.10 for the TT genotype (P = 0.023). However, the most notable associations were observed with the diffuse cutaneous, anti-topoisomerase I antibody positive, and SSc-related fibrosing alveolitis subsets (OR 2.35 [95% CI 1.51-3.66], P = 1.56 × 10(-4), OR 2.84 [95% CI 1.87-4.32], P = 1.07 × 10(-6), and OR 2.09 [95% CI 1.35-3.24], P = 9.05 × 10(-4), respectively).
CONCLUSION:
Our study provides the first evidence of an association between IRAK1 and SSc, demonstrating that a sex chromosome gene directly influences SSc susceptibility and its phenotypic heterogeneity.

12. Ossola MW, Somigliana E, Mauro M, Acaia B, Benaglia L, Fedele L. Risk factors for emergency postpartum hysterectomy: the neglected role of previous surgically induced abortions. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2011 Dec;90(12):1450-3. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0412.2011.01223.x. Epub 2011 Aug 29.
Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Neonatology, Fondazione Cà Granda, Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Milan, Italy.

Abstract
The objective of this retrospective case-control study was to identify clinical factors associated with emergency peripartum hysterectomy. Deliveries from January 2003 through October 2009 in this tertiary care obstetrics hospital were reviewed. Cases were women who underwent emergency peripartum hysterectomy. Controls were those who delivered immediately after the cases but in whom hysterectomy was not needed. They were matched to cases in a 5:1 ratio. Thirty-eight cases and 190 controls were selected. Variables found to be significantly associated with emergency postpartum hysterectomy were a stage III-IV placenta previa (p<0.001), previous surgical abortions (p=0.001) and number of fetuses (p=0.039). The corresponding adjusted odds ratios were 40.2 (95% confidence interval 5.6-287.0), 6.0 (95% confidence interval 2.1-17.2) and 7.8 (95% confidence interval 1.1-55.0), respectively. The study confirms the detrimental role of major placenta previa in influencing the risk of postpartum hysterectomy, but also suggests multiple pregnancy and surgical abortion as potential additional risk factors.

13. Bo S, Ciccone G, Durazzo M, Ghinamo L, Villois P, Canil S, Gambino R, Cassader M, Gentile L, Cavallo-Perin P. Contributors to the obesity and hyperglycemia epidemics. A prospective study in a population-based cohort. Int J Obes (Lond). 2011 Nov;35(11):1442-9. doi: 10.1038/ijo.2011.5. Epub 2011 Feb 1.
Department of Internal Medicine, University of Turin, Turin, Italy. sbo@molinette.piemonte.it

Abstract
OBJECTIVE: Relatively unexplored contributors to the obesity and diabetes epidemics may include sleep restriction, increased house temperature (HT), television watching (TW), consumption of restaurant meals (RMs), use of air conditioning (AC) and use of antidepressant/antipsychotic drugs (ADs).
DESIGN AND SUBJECTS:
In a population-based cohort (n=1597), we investigated the possible association among these conditions, and obesity or hyperglycemia incidence at 6-year follow-up. Subjects with obesity (n=315) or hyperglycemia (n=618) at baseline were excluded, respectively, 1282 and 979 individuals were therefore analyzed.
RESULTS:
At follow-up, 103/1282 became obese; these subjects showed significantly higher body mass index, waist circumference, saturated fat intake, RM frequency, TW hours, HT, AC and AD use, and lower fiber intake, metabolic equivalent of activity in h per week (METS) and sleep hours at baseline. In a multiple logistic regression model, METS (odds ratio=0.94; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.91-0.98), RMs (odds ratio=1.47 per meal per week; 1.21-1.79), being in the third tertile of HT (odds ratio=2.06; 1.02-4.16) and hours of sleep (odds ratio=0.70 per h; 0.57-0.86) were associated with incident obesity. Subjects who developed hyperglycemia (n=174/979; 17.8%) had higher saturated fat intake, RM frequency, TW hours, HT, AC and AD use at baseline and lower METS and fiber intake. In a multiple logistic regression model, fiber intake (odds ratio=0.97 for each g per day; 0.95-0.99), RM (1.49 per meal per week; 1.26-1.75) and being in the third tertile of HT (odds ratio=1.95; 1.17-3.26) were independently associated with incident hyperglycemia.
CONCLUSIONS:
Lifestyle contributors to the obesity and hyperglycemia epidemics may be regular consumption of RM, sleep restriction and higher HT, suggesting potential adjunctive non-pharmacological preventive strategies for the obesity and hyperglycemia epidemics.

14. Martines F, Martines E, Sciacca V, Bentivegna D. Otitis media with effusion with or without atopy: audiological findings on primary schoolchildren. Am J Otolaryngol. 2011 Nov-Dec;32(6):601-6. Epub 2010 Dec 4.
Università degli Studi di Palermo, Dipartimento di Biomedicina Sperimentale e Neuroscienze Cliniche, Sezione di Otorinolaringoiatria, Palermo Italy. francescomartines@unipa.it

Abstract
OBJECTIVE:
The objective of the study was to evaluate the role of atopy in otitis media with effusion (OME) in children attending primary school, focusing on the audiometric and tympanometric measurements among atopic and nonatopic subjects suffering from OME.
MATERIALS AND METHODS:
Three hundred ten children (5-6 years old) were screened in Western Sicily by skin tests and divided into atopics (G1) and nonatopics (G2). The samples were evaluated for OME by pneumatic otoscopy, tympanogram, and acoustic reflex tests. The parameters considered were as follows: documented persistent middle ear effusion by otoscopic examination for a minimum of 3 months, presence of B or C tympanogram, absence of ipsilateral acoustic reflex, and a conductive hearing loss greater than 25 dB at any one of the frequencies from 250 Hz through 4 kHz.
RESULTS:
The overall prevalence rate of OME was 12.9% (42.85% for G1 and 6.30% for G2, odds ratio = 11.16); OME was bilateral in 28 children (70%). B tympanogram was evidenced in 48 ears (70.59%), with a significative difference between G1 and G2 (P < .001). The analysis of mean air conduction pure tone (31.97 dB for G1 and 29.8 dB for G2) and of tympanometric measurements such as ear canal volume, tympanometric peak pressure, and static compliance by analysis of variance test showed a significative difference between G1 and G2 (P < .05).
CONCLUSIONS:
The higher prevalence of OME in atopic children and the statistically significant differences in audiometric and tympanometric measurements among atopic and nonatopic subjects suffering from OME suggest the important role of allergy in the genesis and recurrence of OME.

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