• Andrea Ranzi1

  1. ARPA, Modena
Andrea Ranzi -

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Ricerca bibliografica periodo 02 aprile 2011 – 2 giugno 2011

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Database: Pubmed/MEDline
Stringa: ((pollution OR pollutants) OR (climate change)) AND (Italy) AND (epidemiology OR health effects) Limits Activated: Publication Date from 2011/04/02 to 2011/06/01
Criteri di esclusione degli articoli: Articoli su riviste italiane, Articoli su E&P, Editoriali e Review narrative

Di ogni articolo è disponibile l'abstract. Per visualizzarlo basta cliccare sul titolo.

1. Nuvolone D, Balzi D, Chini M, Scala D, Giovannini F, Barchielli A. Short-Term Association Between Ambient Air Pollution and Risk of Hospitalization for Acute Myocardial Infarction: Results of the Cardiovascular Risk and Air Pollution in Tuscany (RISCAT) Study. Am J Epidemiol. 2011 May 19. [Epub ahead of print]
Air pollutant levels have been widely associated with increased hospitalizations and mortality from cardiovascular disease. In this study, the authors focused on pollutant levels and triggering of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Data on AMI hospitalizations, air quality, and meteorologic conditions were collected in 6 urban areas of Tuscany (central Italy) during 2002-2005. Levels of particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≤10 μm (PM(10)) (range of 4-year mean values, 28.15-40.68 μg/m(3)), nitrogen dioxide (range, 28.52-39.72 μg/m(3)), and carbon monoxide (range, 0.86-1.28 mg/m(3)) were considered, and increases of 10 μg/m(3) (0.1 mg/m(3) for carbon monoxide) were analyzed. A time-stratified case-crossover approach was applied. Area-specific conditional regression models were fitted, adjusting for time-dependent variables. Stratified analyses and analyses in bipollutant models were performed. Pooled estimates were derived from random-effects meta-analyses. Among 11,450 AMI hospitalizations, the meta-analytical odds ratio at lag(2) (2-day lag) was 1.013 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.000, 1.026) for PM(10), 1.022 (95% CI: 1.004, 1.041) for nitrogen dioxide, and 1.007 (95% CI: 1.002, 1.013) for carbon monoxide. More susceptible subgroups were elderly persons (age ≥75 years), females, and older patients with hypertension and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. This study adds to evidence for a short-term association between air pollutants and AMI onset, also evident at low pollutant levels, suggesting a need to focus on more vulnerable subjects.

Breve commento a cura di Andrea Ranzi
L’identificazione delle possibili interazioni fra esposizioni ambientali e fattori individuali, sia di salute che socio-demografici, è uno dei temi di maggiore interesse per l’individuazione delle popolazioni più esposte agli effetti dell’inquinamento. Il presente lavoro, e il lavoro successivo riportato in questa selezione (Chiusolo et al.) condividono metodi e obiettivi dichiarati all’interno dello studio EpiAir, focalizzando l’attenzione anche sull’individuazione delle popolazioni maggiormente suscettibili ad episodi di inquinamento. I risultati trovati forniscono ulteriori contributi sulla relazione fra inquinamento atmosferico ed effetti a breve termine sulla salute, identificando tra le popolazioni fragili (per sesso, età e comorbidità) quelle maggiormente suscettibili all’inquinamento dell’aria

2. Chiusolo M, Cadum E, Stafoggia M, Galassi C, Berti G, Faustini A, Bisanti L, Vigotti MA, Dessì MP, Cernigliaro A, Mallone S, Pacelli B, Minerba S, Simonato L, Forastiere F. Short Term Effects of Nitrogen Dioxide on Mortality and Susceptibility Factors in Ten Italian Cities: the EpiAir Study. Environ Health Perspect. 2011 May 17. [Epub ahead of print]
Regional Environmental Protection Agency.
Several studies have shown an association between nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and mortality. In Italy the EpiAir multicentric Study "Air Pollution and Health: Epidemiological Surveillance and Primary Prevention" investigated short-term health effects of air pollution, including NO2. Objectives. To study the individual susceptibility, we evaluated the association between NO2 and cause-specific mortality, investigating individual socio-demographic features and chronic/acute medical conditions as potential effect modifiers.
Methods. We considered 276,205 natural deaths of persons over 35 years of age, resident in 10 Italian cities and deceased between 2001 and 2005. We chose a time-stratified case-crossover analysis to evaluate the short term effects of NO2 on natural, cardiac, cerebrovascular and respiratory mortality. For each subject we collected information on socio-demographic features and hospital admissions in the previous two years. Fixed monitors provided daily NO2, PM10 and ozone concentrations.
Results. We found statistically significant associations with 10 μg/m3 increases of NO2, i.e. for natural mortality (2.09% for lag 0-5, 95 CI% 0.96:3.24), for cardiac mortality (2.63% for lag 0-5, 95 CI% 1.53:3.75) and respiratory mortality (3.48% for lag 1-5, 95 CI% 0.75:6.29). These associations were independent from those of PM10 and ozone. Stronger associations were estimated for subjects with at least one hospital admission in the two previous years and for subjects with three or more specific chronic conditions. Some cardiovascular conditions (i.e. ischemic heart diseases, pulmonary circulation impairment, heart conduction disorders, heart failure) and diabetes appeared to confer a strong susceptibility to air pollution.
Conclusions. Our results suggest significant and likely independent effects of NO2 on natural, cardiac and respiratory mortality particularly among subjects with specific cardiovascular pre-existing chronic conditions and diabetes.
3. Tramuto F, Cusimano R, Cerame G, Vultaggio M, Calamusa G, Maida CM, Vitale F. . Urban air pollution and emergency room admissions for respiratory symptoms: a case-crossover study in Palermo, Italy. Environ Health. 2011 Apr 13;10:31.
Department for Health Promotion Sciences "G, D'Alessandro" - Hygiene section, University of Palermo, Via del Vespro 133, 90127 Palermo, Italy.
Air pollution from vehicular traffic has been associated with respiratory diseases. In Palermo, the largest metropolitan area in Sicily, urban air pollution is mainly addressed to traffic-related pollution because of lack of industrial settlements, and the presence of a temperate climate that contribute to the limited use of domestic heating plants. This study aimed to investigate the association between traffic-related air pollution and emergency room admissions for acute respiratory symptoms.
METHODS: From January 2004 through December 2007, air pollutant concentrations and emergency room visits were collected for a case-crossover study conducted in Palermo, Sicily. Risk estimates of short-term exposures to particulate matter and gaseous ambient pollutants including carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, and sulfur dioxide were calculated by using a conditional logistic regression analysis.
RESULTS: Emergency departments provided data on 48,519 visits for respiratory symptoms. Adjusted case-crossover analyses revealed stronger effects in the warm season for the most part of the pollutants considered, with a positive association for PM10 (odds ratio = 1.039, 95% confidence interval: 1.020 - 1.059), SO2 (OR = 1.068, 95% CI: 1.014 - 1.126), nitrogen dioxide (NO2: OR = 1.043, 95% CI: 1.021 - 1.065), and CO (OR = 1.128, 95% CI: 1.074 - 1.184), especially among females (according to an increase of 10 μg/m3 in PM10, NO2, SO2, and 1 mg/m3 in CO exposure). A positive association was observed either in warm or in cold season only for PM10.
CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that, in our setting, exposure to ambient levels of air pollution is an important determinant of emergency room (ER) visits for acute respiratory symptoms, particularly during the warm season. ER admittance may be considered a good proxy to evaluate the adverse effects of air pollution on respiratory health.
4. Pasqualini S, Tedeschini E, Frenguelli G, Wopfner N, Ferreira F, D'Amato G, Ederli L. Ozone affects pollen viability and NAD(P)H oxidase release from Ambrosia artemisiifolia pollen. Environ Pollut. 2011 May 21. [Epub ahead of print]
Department of Applied Biology, University of Perugia, Perugia, Italy.
Air pollution is frequently proposed as a cause of the increased incidence of allergy in industrialised countries. We investigated the impact of ozone (O(3)) on reactive oxygen species (ROS) and allergen content of ragweed pollen (Ambrosia artemisiifolia). Pollen was exposed to acute O(3) fumigation, with analysis of pollen viability, ROS and nitric oxide (NO) content, activity of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAD[P]H) oxidase, and expression of major allergens. There was decreased pollen viability after O(3) fumigation, which indicates damage to the pollen membrane system, although the ROS and NO contents were not changed or were only slightly induced, respectively. Ozone exposure induced a significant enhancement of the ROS-generating enzyme NAD(P)H oxidase. The expression of the allergen Amb a 1 was not affected by O(3), determined from the mRNA levels of the major allergens. We conclude that O(3) can increase ragweed pollen allergenicity through stimulation of ROS-generating NAD(P)H oxidase..
5. Gualtieri M, Ovrevik J, Mollerup S, Asare N, Longhin E, Dahlman HJ, Camatini M, Holme JA. Airborne urban particles (Milan winter-PM2.5) cause mitotic arrest and cell death: Effects on DNA, mitochondria, AhR binding and spindle organization. Mutat Res. 2011 May 30.
SourceApplied Cell Biology and Particles Effects, Department of Environmental Science, University Milano-Bicocca, Piazza della Scienza 1, 20126 Milano, Italy; Division of Environmental Medicine, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, P.O. Box 4404 Nydalen, N-0403 Oslo, Norway.
Airborne particulate matter (PM) is considered to be an important contributor to lung diseases. In the present study we report that Milan winter-PM2.5 inhibited proliferation in human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B) by inducing mitotic arrest. The cell cycle arrest was followed by an increase in mitotic-apoptotic cells, mitotic slippage and finally an increase in "classical" apoptotic cells. Exposure to winter-PM10 induced only a slight effect which may be due to the presence of PM2.5 in this fraction while pure combustion particles failed to disturb mitosis. Fewer cells expressing the mitosis marker phospho-histone H3 compared to cells with condensed chromosomes, suggest that PM2.5 induced premature mitosis. PM2.5 was internalized into the cells and often localized in laminar organelles, although particles without apparent plasma membrane covering were also seen. In PM-containing cells mitochondria and lysosomes were often damaged, and in mitotic cells fragmented chromosomes often appeared. PM2.5 induced DNA strands breaks and triggered a DNA-damage response characterized by increased phosphorylation of ATM, Chk2 and H2AX; as well as induced a marked increase in expression of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)-regulated genes, CYP1A1, CYP1B1 and AhRR. Furthermore, some disturbance of the organization of microtubules was indicated. It is hypothesized that the induced mitotic arrest and following cell death was due to a premature chromosome condensation caused by a combination of DNA, mitochondrial and spindle damage.
6. Ciarrocca M, Caciari T, Ponticiello BG, Gioffre PA, Tomei G, Sancini A, Schifano MP, Palermo P, Nardone N, Scimitto L, Fiaschetti M, Tomei F. Follicle-stimulating hormone levels in female workers exposed to urban pollutants. Int J Environ Health Res. 2011 Apr 28:1-11. [Epub ahead of print]
Departments of Occupational Medicine, University of Rome "Sapienza", Rome, Italy.
The aim of this study was to evaluate if there were alterations in FSH plasma levels in female outdoor workers (traffic policewomen and drivers) exposed to chemical urban stressors vs. control group. After excluding subjects with main confounding factors, traffic policewomen, drivers and indoor workers were matched by age, working life, socioeconomic status, marital status, menstrual cycle day, age of menarche, habitual consumption of Italian coffee and soy. A total of 129 female subjects were included in the study: Some 63 workers studied during proliferative phase and 66 during secretory phase of menstrual cycle. Proliferative phase of menstrual cycle: FSH mean values were significantly higher in traffic policewomen compared to controls (p < 0.05). Results suggest that in outdoor workers exposed to urban chemical stressors there are alterations in FSH levels; therefore FSH may be used as an early biological marker, valuable for the group, used in occupational set.
7. Sarigiannis DA, Karakitsios SP, Gotti A, Liakos IL, Katsoyiannis A. . Exposure to major volatile organic compounds and carbonyls in European indoor environments and associated health risk. Environ Int. 2011 May;37(4):743-65. Epub 2011 Feb 26.
Source European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Health and Consumer Protection, Chemical Assessment and Testing Unit, Via Fermi 1, 21027, Ispra (VA), Italy.
This paper summarizes recent data on the occurrence of major organic compounds (benzene, toluene, xylenes, styrene, acetaldehyde, formaldehyde, naphthalene, limonene, α-pinene and ammonia, classified by the European Commission's INDEX strategy report as the priority pollutants to be regulated) and evaluates accordingly cancer and non-cancer risks posed by indoor exposure in dwellings and public buildings in European Union (EU) countries. The review process indicated that significant differences in indoor air quality exist within and among the countries where data were available, indicating corresponding differences in sources and emission strength of airborne chemicals, identified or not. Conservative exposure limits were not exceeded for non-carcinogenic effects, except for formaldehyde; for carcinogenic agents the estimated risks were up to three orders of magnitude higher than the one (10(-6)) proposed as acceptable by risk management bodies. However, the risk assessment evaluation process faces crucial difficulties, either due to the relative paucity of indoor air quality measurements in many EU countries, or by the lack of sampling consistency in the already existing studies, indicating the need for additional measurements of indoor air quality following a harmonized sampling and analytical protocol. Additionally, uncertainties embodied in the cancer potency factors and exposure limit values impose further difficulties in substance prioritization and risk management.
8. Baderna D, Maggioni S, Boriani E, Gemma S, Molteni M, Lombardo A, Colombo A, Bordonali S, Rotella G, Lodi M, Benfenati E. A combined approach to investigate the toxicity of an industrial landfill's leachate: chemical analyses, risk assessment and in vitro assays. . Environ Res. 2011 May;111(4):603-13. Epub 2011 Feb 12.
SourceLaboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Toxicology, Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche Mario Negri, Via Giuseppe La Masa 19, 20156 Milan, Italy.
Solid wastes constitute an important and emerging problem. Landfills are still one of the most common ways to manage waste disposal. The risk assessment of pollutants from landfills is becoming a major environmental issue in Europe, due to the large number of sites and to the importance of groundwater protection. Furthermore, there is lack of knowledge for the environmental, ecotoxicological and toxicological characteristics of most contaminants contained into landfill leacheates. Understanding leachate composition and creating an integrated strategy for risk assessment are currently needed to correctly face the landfill issues and to make projections on the long-term impacts of a landfill, with particular attention to the estimation of possible adverse effects on human health and ecosystem. In the present study, we propose an integrated strategy to evaluate the toxicity of the leachate using chemical analyses, risk assessment guidelines and in vitro assays using the hepatoma HepG2 cells as a model. The approach was applied on a real case study: an industrial waste landfill in northern Italy for which data on the presence of leachate contaminants are available from the last 11 years. Results from our ecological risk models suggest important toxic effects on freshwater fish and small rodents, mainly due to ammonia and inorganic constituents. Our results from in vitro data show an inhibition of cell proliferation by leachate at low doses and cytotoxic effect at high doses after 48 h of exposure.
9. Roiz D, Neteler M, Castellani C, Arnoldi D, Rizzoli A. . Climatic Factors Driving Invasion of the Tiger Mosquito (Aedes albopictus) into New Areas of Trentino, Northern Italy. PLoS One. 2011 Apr 15;6(4):e14800.
Department of Biodiversity and Molecular Ecology, Fondazione Edmund Mach, Research and Innovation Centre, S. Michele all' Adige, Italy.
Background: The tiger mosquito (Aedes albopictus), vector of several emerging diseases, is expanding into more northerly latitudes as well as into higher altitudes in northern Italy. Changes in the pattern of distribution of the tiger mosquito may affect the potential spread of infectious diseases transmitted by this species in Europe. Therefore, predicting suitable areas of future establishment and spread is essential for planning early prevention and control strategies.
METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: TO IDENTIFY THE AREAS CURRENTLY MOST SUITABLE FOR THE OCCURRENCE OF THE TIGER MOSQUITO IN THE PROVINCE OF TRENTO, WE COMBINED FIELD ENTOMOLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS WITH ANALYSES OF SATELLITE TEMPERATURE DATA (MODIS LAND SURFACE TEMPERATURE: LST) and human population data. We determine threshold conditions for the survival of overwintering eggs and for adult survival using both January mean temperatures and annual mean temperatures. We show that the 0°C LST threshold for January mean temperatures and the 11°C threshold for annual mean temperatures provide the best predictors for identifying the areas that could potentially support populations of this mosquito. In fact, human population density and distance to human settlements appear to be less important variables affecting mosquito distribution in this area. Finally, we evaluated the future establishment and spread of this species in relation to predicted climate warming by considering the A2 scenario for 2050 statistically downscaled at regional level in which winter and annual temperatures increase by 1.5 and 1°C, respectively.
CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE MODIS satellite LST data are useful for accurately predicting potential areas of tiger mosquito distribution and for revealing the range limits of this species in mountainous areas, predictions which could be extended to an European scale. We show that the observed trend of increasing temperatures due to climate change could facilitate further invasion of Ae. albopictus into new areas.
10. Campo L, Fustinoni S, Bertazzi P. Quantification of carcinogenic 4- to 6-ring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in human urine by solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography-isotope dilution mass spectrometry. Anal Bioanal Chem. 2011 May 28. [Epub ahead of print]
Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, University of Milan and Fondazione IRCCS Ca' Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Via S. Barnaba 8, 20122, Milan, Italy,
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are pollutants found in living and working environments. The aim of this study was to develop a solid-phase microextraction (SPME) gas chromatography (GC)-isotope dilution mass spectrometry method for the quantification of 10 four- to six-ring PAHs in urine samples. Seven of the selected PAHs have been classified as carcinogenic. Under the final conditions, analytes were sampled with a 100-μm polydimethylsiloxane SPME fibre for 60 min at 80 °C and desorbed in the injection port of the GC at 270 °C. Fluoranthene, pyrene, benz[a]anthracene, chrysene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, benzo[k]fluoranthene, benzo[a]pyrene, dibenzo[a,h]anthracene, indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene and benzo[ghi]perylene were separated using a highly arylene-modified phase capillary column and quantified by MS using eight deuterated PAHs as surrogate internal standards. Limits of quantification (LOQ) were in the 0.5- to 2.2-ng/L range. Validation showed linear dynamic ranges up to 340 ng/L, inter- and intra-run precisions <20%, and accuracies within 20% of spiked concentrations. Matrix effect evaluation and the use of control charts to monitor process performances showed that the isotope dilution approach allowed for the control of bias sources. Urinary PAHs were above or equal to LOQ, depending on different compounds, in 58-100% (min-max), 40-100% and 5-39% of samples from coke oven workers (n = 12), asphalt workers (n = 10) and individuals not occupationally exposed to PAHs (n = 18), respectively. Chrysene was the most abundant PAH determined with median levels of 62.6, 6.9 and <0.6 ng/L, respectively. These results show that the method is suitable for quantifying carcinogenic PAHs in specimens from individuals with different levels of PAH exposure.

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