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  • Andrea Ranzi1

  1. Arpa, Modena

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Ricerca bibliografica periodo dal 16 gennaio – 31 marzo 2013

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Stringa: (pollution[Title/Abstract] OR pollutant[Title/Abstract] OR pollutants[Title/Abstract] OR climate change[Title/Abstract] ) AND ("italy"[MeSH Terms] OR "italy"[All Fields]) AND ("2013/01/16"[PDAT] : "2013/03/31"[PDAT])

Breve commento all’intera sezione a cura di Andrea Ranzi
Gli articoli riportati in questo primo trimestre 2013 riportano studi di biomonitoraggio, di misure di esposizione individuale tramite campionatori personali, di analisi sui possibili meccanismi tossicologici legati all’esposizione a particolato. Vi è anche un articolo sulla distribuzione spazio-temporale del particolato e delle sue componenti, con un’interessante analisi mirata a legare la tossicità del particolato valutata tramite test in vitro in differenti aree e stagioni con la relative composizione chimica. Il miglioramento nella valutazione dell’esposizione tramite l’uso di metodi diretti e l’analisi degli effetti sulla salute delle componenti del particolato sono sicuramente due dei temi in cui è necessaria una maggiore conoscenza e l’uso di strumenti sempre più affinati.

1. Pedata P, Bergamasco N, D'Anna A, Minutolo P, Servillo L, Sannolo N, Balestrieri ML. Apoptotic and proinflammatory effect of combustion-generated organic nanoparticles in endothelial cells. Toxicol Lett. 2013 Mar 26. pii: S0378-4274(13)00122-7. doi: 10.1016/j.toxlet.2013.03.017. [Epub ahead of print]
Department of Experimental Medicine - Section of Hygiene, Occupational Medicine and Forensic Medicine - School of Medicine, Second University of Naples, Via L. De Crecchio 7, 80138 Naples, Italy.

Abstract Air pollution exposure in industrialized cities is associated with an increased risk of morbidity and mortality attributed to cardiovascular diseases. Combustion exhausts emitted from motor vehicles and industries represent a major source of nanoparticles in the atmosphere. Flame-generated organic carbon nanoparticles (OC NPs) provide interesting model nanoparticles that simulate fresh combustion emissions near roadways or combustion sources. These model nanoparticles can be produced by controlling flame operating conditions and used to test possible toxicological mechanisms responsible for the observed health effects. OC NPs were used to investigate their possible effect on endothelial cells (EC) growth and production of proinflammatory lipid mediators. Results indicated a dose and time-dependent reduction in cell viability following incubation of EC with OC NPs for 24 and 48h. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting revealed that EC treated with OC NPs showed a cell proliferation index significantly lower than that of control cells and an increased apoptotic cell death. The annexin assay confirmed the increased apoptotic cell death. Moreover, OC NPs also induced a time-dependent increase of proinflammatory lysophospholipid production. These results, establishing that OC NPs induce EC proinflammatory lysophosholipid production and apoptotic cell death, provide the first evidence of the detrimental effect of OC NPs on EC.

2. Peluso M, Munnia A, Ceppi M, Giese RW, Catelan D, Rusconi F, Godschalk RW, Biggeri A. Malondialdehyde-deoxyguanosine and bulky DNA adducts in schoolchildren resident in the proximity of the Sarroch industrial estate on Sardinia Island, Italy. Mutagenesis. 2013 Feb 27. [Epub ahead of print]
Cancer Risk Factor Branch, Cancer Prevention and Research Institute, Via il Vecchio 2, 50139 Florence, Italy.

Abstract Air quality is a primary environmental concern in highly industrialised areas, with potential health effects in children residing nearby. The Sarroch industrial estate in Cagliari province, Sardinia Island, Italy, hosts the world's largest power plant and the second largest European oil refinery and petrochemical park. This industrial estate produces a complex mixture of air pollutants, including benzene, heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Thus, we conducted a cross-sectional study to evaluate the prevalence of malondialdehyde-deoxyguanosine adducts in the nasal epithelium of 75 representative children, aged 6-14 years, attending primary and secondary schools in Sarroch in comparison with 73 rural controls. Additionally, the levels of bulky DNA adducts were analysed in a subset of 62 study children. DNA damage was measured by (32)P-postlabelling methodologies. The air concentrations of benzene and ethyl benzene were measured in the school gardens of Sarroch and a rural village by diffusive samplers. Outdoor measurements were also performed in other Sarroch areas and in the proximity of the industrial estate. The outdoor levels of benzene and ethyl benzene were significantly higher in the school gardens of Sarroch than in the rural village. Higher concentrations were also found in other Sarroch areas and in the vicinity of the industrial park. The mean levels of malondialdehyde-deoxyguanosine adducts per 10(8) normal nucleotides ± standard error (SE) were 74.6±9.1 and 34.1±4.4 in the children from Sarroch and the rural village, respectively. The mean ratio was 2.53, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.71-2.89, P < 0.001, versus rural controls. Similarly, the levels of bulky DNA adducts per 10(8) normal nucleotides ± SE were 2.9±0.4 and 1.6±0.2 in the schoolchildren from Sarroch and the rural village, respectively. The means ratio was 1.90, 95% CI: 1.25-2.89, P = 0.003 versus rural controls. Our study indicates that children residing near the industrial estate have a significant increment of DNA damage.

3.Lamichhane JR, Fabi A, Ridolfi R, Varvaro L. Epidemiological study of hazelnut bacterial blight in central Italy by using laboratory analysis and geostatistics. PLoS One. 2013;8(2):e56298. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0056298. Epub 2013 Feb 12.
Department of Science and Technology for Agriculture, Forestry, Nature and Energy-DAFNE, Tuscia University, Viterbo, Italy.

Abstract Incidence of Xanthomonas arboricola pv. corylina, the causal agent of hazelnut bacterial blight, was analyzed spatially in relation to the pedoclimatic factors. Hazelnut grown in twelve municipalities situated in the province of Viterbo, central Italy was studied. A consistent number of bacterial isolates were obtained from the infected tissues of hazelnut collected in three years (2010-2012). The isolates, characterized by phenotypic tests, did not show any difference among them. Spatial patterns of pedoclimatic data, analyzed by geostatistics showed a strong positive correlation of disease incidence with higher values of rainfall, thermal shock and soil nitrogen; a weak positive correlation with soil aluminium content and a strong negative correlation with the values of Mg/K ratio. No correlation of the disease incidence was found with soil pH. Disease incidence ranged from very low (<1%) to very high (almost 75%) across the orchards. Young plants (4-year old) were the most affected by the disease confirming a weak negative correlation of the disease incidence with plant age. Plant cultivars did not show any difference in susceptibility to the pathogen. Possible role of climate change on the epidemiology of the disease is discussed. Improved management practices are recommended for effective control of the disease.

4. Zani C, Gelatti U, Donato F, Capelli M, Portolani N, Bergonzi R, Apostoli P. Polychlorinated biphenyls in serum, liver and adipose tissue of subjects with hepatocellular carcinoma living in a highly polluted area. Chemosphere. 2013 Apr;91(2):194-9. doi: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2012.12.046. Epub 2013 Jan 17.
Institute of Hygiene, Epidemiology and Public Health, University of Brescia, Viale Europa 11, 25123 Brescia, Italy. zani@med.unibs.it

Abstract Brescia (North Italy) is located in a highly industrialized area with diffuse environmental pollution by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and with a high incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We aimed to investigate the concentration of PCBs congeners in serum, liver and adipose tissue of patients with HCC living in this area. We enrolled prospectively 101 HCC incident cases. Lipid-adjusted PCBs concentration of single congeners and total PCBs concentration, computed as the sum of 24 PCBs congeners, were measured in the serum of all subjects and in the liver and abdominal fat of 59 HCC cases undergoing surgery. A high correlation was found between PCBs serum and liver (Spearman r=0.79), serum and fat (r=0.91), and liver and fat (r=0.75) concentrations. Serum PCBs concentration in HCC patients did not vary according to demographical, clinical or epidemiological variables, apart from age, as PCBs concentration increased linearly with the subject's age. This study confirms that serum lipid-adjusted PCBs concentration is a valid measure of PCBs body storage and is highly correlated with PCBs concentration detected in other biological samples.

5. Lagorio S, Ferrante D, Ranucci A, Negri S, Sacco P, Rondelli R, Cannizzaro S, Torregrossa MV, Cocco P, Forastiere F, Miligi L, Bisanti L, Magnani C. Exposure to benzene and childhood leukaemia: a pilot case-control study. BMJ Open. 2013 Feb 26;3(2). pii: e002275. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2012-002275. Print 2013.
National Centre for Epidemiology, Surveillance and Health Promotion, National Institute of Health, Rome, Italy.

Abstract OBJECTIVES: Main purpose To evaluate the feasibility of a measurement-based assessment of benzene exposure in case-control studies of paediatric cancer; Additional aims To identify the sources of exposure variability; to assess the performance of two benzene biomarkers; to verify the occurrence of participation bias; to check whether exposures to benzene and to 50 Hz magnetic fields were correlated, and might exert reciprocal confounding effects. DESIGN: Pilot case-control study of childhood leukaemia and exposure to benzene assessed by repeated seasonal weekly measurements in breathing zone air samples and outside the children's dwellings, with concurrent determinations of cotinine, t-t-muconic acid (MA) and sulfo-phenylmercapturic acid (S-PMA) in urine. PARTICIPANTS: 108 cases and 194 controls were eligible for inclusion. RESULTS: Full-participation was obtained from 46 cases and 60 controls, with low dropout rates before four repeats (11% and 17%); an additional 23 cases and 80 controls allowed the collection of outdoor air samples only. The average benzene concentration in personal and outdoor air samples was 3 μg/m(3) (SD 1.45) and 2.7 μg/m(3) (SD 1.41), respectively. Personal exposure was strongly influenced by outdoor benzene concentrations, higher in the cold seasons than in warm seasons, and not affected by gender, age, area of residence or caseness. Urinary excretion of S-PMA and personal benzene exposure were well correlated. Outdoor benzene levels were lower among participant controls compared with non-participants, but did not differ between participant and non-participant cases; the direction of the bias was found to depend on the cut-point chosen to distinguish exposed and unexposed. Exposures to benzene and extremely low-frequency magnetic fields were positively correlated. CONCLUSIONS: Repeated individual measurements are needed to account for the seasonal variability in benzene exposure, and they have the additional advantage of increasing the study power. Measurement-based assessment of benzene exposure in studies of childhood leukaemia appears feasible, although it is financially and logistically demanding.

6. Deroma L, Parpinel M, Tognin V, Channoufi L, Tratnik J, Horvat M, Valent F, Barbone F. Neuropsychological assessment at school-age and prenatal low-level exposure to mercury through fish consumption in an Italian birth cohort living near a contaminated site. Int J Hyg Environ Health. 2013 Jul;216(4):486-93. doi: 10.1016/j.ijheh.2013.02.004. Epub 2013 Mar 6.
Department of Medical and Biological Sciences, Udine University, Udine, Italy; SOC Centro di Coordinamento per le Malattie rare, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria di Udine, Udine, Italy.

Abstract The relative effects of prenatal and postnatal low-level mercury exposure and fish intake on child neurodevelopment are still controversial. Limited evidence is available from Mediterranean populations. In this prospective study, we measured the Verbal and Performance IQ in Italian children at school-age who were resident in an area declared as a National contaminated site because of mercury pollution, taking into account the possible beneficial effect of fish consumption and potential confounders. A mother-child cohort made up of 242 children was established at birth in Northeastern Italy in 2001. Their mothers were interviewed approximately 2 months after delivery to determine type, quantity, and origin of fish consumed during pregnancy and about a number of mother, child and family characteristics. Total mercury (THg) and methyl mercury (MeHg) were assessed in maternal hair and breast milk and in the child's hair. When children reached 7-9 years of age, 154 (63.6%) parents gave consent to participate in a follow-up evaluation. On that occasion, a child's hair sample was collected to determine the current concentration of THg, mothers were asked to complete a self-administered questionnaire, and children underwent neuropsychological testing. Verbal IQ, performance IQ and full scale IQ were measured by the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC III) administered by psychologists at school or local health centers. Demographic, socioeconomic and lifestyle information, medical information of the child's family and the child's dietary habits were collected using a questionnaire filled in by mothers. Multivariable linear regression models were used to evaluate the association between prenatal THg exposure through fish consumption of mothers in pregnancy and children's IQ after adjustment for possible confounders such as fish consumption of mothers in pregnancy, child's fish consumption at follow-up, child's birthweight, maternal cigarette smoking during pregnancy, house size and property place of residence during pregnancy and gender. THg in the child's hair at 7 years of age was fairly correlated with THg in maternal hair at delivery (rs=0.35; p<0.0001) and was strongly correlated with child's seafood consumption (rs=0.50, p<0.0001). No differences in maternal THg levels were found when comparing children with low or extremely low or high or extremely high scores vs others, considering separately full scale, verbal, and performance IQs. Children born from mothers with hair THg levels greater than or equal to 2000ng/g had full scale, verbal and performance IQs which were 4-5 points lower than children born from women with lower THg levels, but these differences were not statistically significant. Fresh fish intake of mothers in pregnancy was slightly positively associated with full scale and performance but not so with verbal IQs. Canned fish showed to be negatively associated with all the outcome variables. Unexpectedly, children born to mothers from one town showed IQ scores significantly lower than the other children; however, none of the many variables considered in these analyses could explain this result. The relatively low Hg levels found in the biological samples did not provide evidence of high and extensive Hg exposure in this population. Although THg levels in maternal and child's biological samples are correlated with fish consumption, the effects of THg and fish on neurological outcomes go in opposite directions. These results do not allow to develop recommendations regarding fish consumption in pregnancy but suggest that keeping THg hair levels<2000ng/g might be desirable.

7.Farina F, Sancini G, Battaglia C, Tinaglia V, Mantecca P, Camatini M, Palestini P. Milano summer particulate matter (PM10) triggers lung inflammation and extra pulmonary adverse events in mice. PLoS One. 2013;8(2):e56636. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0056636. Epub 2013 Feb 25.
Department of Health Science, POLARIS Research Center, University of Milano-Bicocca, Monza, Italy.

Abstract Recent studies have suggested a link between particulate matter (PM) exposure and increased mortality and morbidity associated with pulmonary and cardiovascular diseases; accumulating evidences point to a new role for air pollution in CNS diseases. The purpose of our study is to investigate PM10sum effects on lungs and extra pulmonary tissues. Milano PM10sum has been intratracheally instilled into BALB/c mice. Broncho Alveolar Lavage fluid, lung parenchyma, heart and brain were screened for markers of inflammation (cell counts, cytokines, ET-1, HO-1, MPO, iNOS), cytotoxicity (LDH, ALP, Hsp70, Caspase8-p18, Caspase3-p17) for a putative pro-carcinogenic marker (Cyp1B1) and for TLR4 pathway activation. Brain was also investigated for CD68, TNF-α, GFAP. In blood, cell counts were performed while plasma was screened for endothelial activation (sP-selectin, ET-1) and for inflammation markers (TNF-α, MIP-2, IL-1β, MPO). Genes up-regulation (HMOX1, Cyp1B1, IL-1β, MIP-2, MPO) and miR-21 have been investigated in lungs and blood. Inflammation in the respiratory tract of PM10sum-treated mice has been confirmed in BALf and lung parenchyma by increased PMNs percentage, increased ET-1, MPO and cytokines levels. A systemic spreading of lung inflammation in PM10sum-treated mice has been related to the increased blood total cell count and neutrophils percentage, as well as to increased blood MPO. The blood-endothelium interface activation has been confirmed by significant increases of plasma ET-1 and sP-selectin. Furthermore PM10sum induced heart endothelial activation and PAHs metabolism, proved by increased ET-1 and Cyp1B1 levels. Moreover, PM10sum causes an increase in brain HO-1 and ET-1. These results state the translocation of inflammation mediators, ultrafine particles, LPS, metals associated to PM10sum, from lungs to bloodstream, thus triggering a systemic reaction, mainly involving heart and brain. Our results provided additional insight into the toxicity of PM10sum and could facilitate shedding light on mechanisms underlying the development of urban air pollution related diseases.

8. Perrone MG, Gualtieri M, Consonni V, Ferrero L, Sangiorgi G, Longhin E, Ballabio D, Bolzacchini E, Camatini M. Particle size, chemical composition, seasons of the year and urban, rural or remote site origins as determinants of biological effects of particulate matter on pulmonary cells. Environ Pollut. 2013 May;176:215-27. doi: 10.1016/j.envpol.2013.01.012. Epub 2013 Feb 26.
Research Center POLARIS, Atmospheric Chemistry, University of Milano-Bicocca, DISAT, P.zza della Scienza 1, 20126 Milan, Italy. grazia.perrone@unimib.it

Abstract Particulate matter (PM), a complex mix of chemical compounds, results to be associated with various health effects. However there is still lack of information on the impact of its different components. PM2.5 and PM1 samples, collected during the different seasons at an urban, rural and remote site, were chemically characterized and the biological effects induced on A549 cells were assessed. A Partial Least Square Discriminant Analysis has been performed to relate PM chemical composition to the toxic effects observed. Results show that PM-induced biological effects changed with the seasons and sites, and such variations may be explained by chemical constituents of PM, derived both from primary and secondary sources. The first-time here reported biological responses induced by PM from a remote site at high altitude were associated with the high concentrations of metals and secondary species typical of the free tropospheric aerosol, influenced by long range transports and aging.

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