rubrica

Lavoro

  • Dario Consonni1

  1. Clinica del lavoro, Milano
Dario Consonni -

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Ricerca bibliografica periodo 1 febbraio 2011 – 1 aprile 2011

Per leggere le caratteristiche di questa ROUTINE di ricerca clicca qui

Database: Pubmed/MEDline
Stringa:
(Occupational Exposure [MESH] or Occupational Diseases [MESH] or Occupational Health [MESH] or Workplace [MESH] or Accidents, Occupational [MESH] or Employment [MESH] ) AND (Italy [MESH] or italy [termine libero]).
Limiti: pubblucati da gennaio 2010 fino 15 settembre 2010

Database: Ovid MEDLINE(R) In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations .
Strategia di ricerca:
occupation (titlo/abstract) or occupational (titolo/abstract) or worker (titolo/abstract) or job (titolo e abstract) and italy (tutti i campi).

Di ogni articolo è disponibile l'abstract. Per visualizzarlo basta cliccare sul titolo.

FATTORI PSICOSOCIALI

Menni C, Bagnardi V, Padmanabhan S, Facchetti R, Sega R, Ferrario MM, Brambilla P, Lee WK, Dominiczak AF, Mancia G, Cesana G. Evaluation of How Gene-Job Strain Interaction Affects Blood Pressure in the PAMELA Study. Psychosom Med. 2011 Mar 1. [Epub ahead of print] ]
Department of Statistics (C.M., V.B.), University of Milano-Bicocca, Milano, Milano, Italy; BHF Glasgow Cardiovascular Research Centre (C.M., S.P., W.K.L., A.F.D.), University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UK; Division of Epidemiology and Biostatistics (V.B.), European Institute of Oncology, Milano, Italy; Study Centre on Public Health (R.F., R.S., M.M.F., G.C.) and the Department of Experimental Medicine (P.B.), University of Milano-Bicocca, Monza, Italy; and the Department of Clinical Medicine and Prevention (G.M.), University of Milano-Bicocca, San Gerardo Hospital, Monza, Italy. from the British Heart Foundation (S.P.).
Abstract
Objective: To see whether there is interaction between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) belonging to candidate genes for hypertension and job strain and its components (job demand and job control) in an accurately phenotyped Italian cohort (Pressioni Arteriose Monitorate E Loro Associazioni).
Methods: From the Pressioni Arteriose Monitorate E Loro Associazioni cohort, we sampled 924 employed men and women who had completed a modified version of the Karasek questionnaire and for whom deoxyribonucleic acid information was available. We selected 1,510 common tagging and putative functional SNPs in 92 candidate autosomal genes involved in sympathetic nervous system, oxidative stress, renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, and sodium balance. The interaction of each candidate SNP with the perceived job stress scores on ambulatory systolic and diastolic blood pressures was evaluated by adding product terms to a multiple regression linear model, adjusted for sex, age, total cholesterol, and body mass index.
Results: Among all the SNPs tested, the interaction of SNP rs11210278 located on the endothelin 2 gene and job control was statistically significant after controlling for multiple testing, using false discovery rate (unadjusted p = .00000661; p adjusted for false discovery rate = .0085), indicating an inverse association with systolic blood pressure for the homozygous wild-type allele (C/C) and a positive association for the variant genotypes (C/T and T/T).
Conclusions: We show that the hypertensive response to job strain is present only in carriers of the rs11210278 wild-type genotype. The phenomenon is discussed in relationship to the controversial results of field studies on job strain and hypertension.

Breve commento a cura di Dario Consonni
Interessante esempio di valutazione dell’interazione tra fattori psico-sociali e genetici nel contesto di uno studio di popolazione ben disegnato e condotto.

INFORTUNI

Bena A, Berchialla P, Debernardi ML, Pasqualini O, Farina E, Costa G. Impact of organization on occupational injury risk: Evidence from high-speed railway construction. Am J Ind Med. 2011 Feb 15. doi: 10.1002/ajim.20939. [Epub ahead of print]
Department of Epidemiology-ASL To3, Grugliasco, Torino, Italy.
Abstract
BACKGROUND: The construction industry is at the top of the list of priorities for surveillance and research, although it is often difficult to perform detailed analysis of the risk factors. In mid-2002, construction work started on the Torino to Novara high-speed railway line. A Regional Epidemiological Observatory developed a standardized data collection system that provided a rare opportunity for researchers in Italy to analyze risk factors for occupational injury in a large cohort of workers involved in a single major construction project. The aim of this study is to describe the characteristics of a cohort of workers employed at construction sites of the high-speed Torino to Novara railway between 2003 and 2005, analyze the main determinants of occupational injury risk and estimate incidence rates.
METHODS: Frequency rates of occupational injury were calculated by characteristics of workers and firms and relative risks were estimated using a Poisson model.
RESULTS: Annual injury incidence decreased over the period and was higher than the Italian construction industry rate. The risk was highest among workers performing the least skilled jobs and with the shortest contracts. Moreover the risk was higher in large enterprises.
CONCLUSIONS: Although calculated within a specific context, the results provide information applicable to all construction sites. The high risk of occupational injury associated with short-term contracts suggests, at such large and long-term construction sites, to engage workers on a permanent basis for the duration of the construction project.

Breve commento a cura di Dario Consonni
Una dimostrazione degli effetti nocivi sulla salute della condizione di precarietà lavorativa in uno dei settori industriali con maggior impatto negativo sulla salute.

MONITORAGGIO AMBIENTALE E BIOLOGICO

1. Scarselli A, Binazzi A, Di Marzio D. Occupational exposure levels to benzene in Italy: findings from a national database. Int Arch Occup Environ Health. 2011 Feb 4. [Epub ahead of print]
ISPESL Area, Occupational Medicine Department, Epidemiology Unit, Italian Workers' Compensation Authority (INAIL), Rome, Italy, alberto.scarselli@ispesl.it.
Abstract
PURPOSE: tBenzene is classified as human carcinogen and the association with lymphohaematopoietic cancer has been observed in many occupational epidemiological studies. The aim of this study is to summarize data about occupational exposure levels to benzene in Italy.
METHODS: t Airborne concentrations of benzene were selected from the Italian database on occupational exposure to carcinogens in the period 1996-2007. Descriptive statistics were calculated for exposure-related variables. The number of workers potentially exposed was estimated for the industrial sectors better characterized in the database. An analysis through linear mixed model was performed to determine factors affecting the exposure level.
RESULTS: tThe total number of benzene exposure measurements was 15,776, with an overall arithmetic mean of 0.09 ppm and a geometric mean of 0.02 ppm. Economic sectors with a higher number of measurements (N) were the manufacturing of chemicals (N = 10,480) and the petrochemical industry (N = 2,652). The number of workers potentially exposed in the selected sectors was 37,137, and the most predictive independent variables of the exposure level were measurement year and job category.
CONCLUSIONS: t Occupational benzene exposure is still widespread in many different industries, and proactive measures are needed to reduce its impact on the workers' health. The potential of occupational exposure databases as a source of data for exposure assessment is confirmed.
2. Basso E, Cevoli C, Papacchini M, Tranfo G, Mansi A, Testa A. Cytogenetic biomonitoring on a group of petroleum refinery workers. Environ Mol Mutagen. 2011 Mar 2. doi: 10.1002/em.20641. [Epub ahead of print]
Section of Toxicology and Biomedical Sciences, Research Centre ENEA Casaccia, Rome, Italy.
Abstract
Workers employed in petroleum refineries are exposed to a wide range of toxic compounds (benzene, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, heavy metals, etc.) with known mutagenic and carcinogenic potential. In this study, we investigated by using the cytokinesis block micronucleus (CBMN) assay on human peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) whether general occupational exposure in petroleum refineries resulted in early biological effects, which would be indicative of adverse health effects in the long term. In this study, out of more 500 workers enrolled in the study, 79 male subjects (46 nonsmokers and 33 smokers), employed in two different Italian petroleum refineries, and a total of 50 male control subjects (34 nonsmokers and 16 smokers) were selected by using very strict selection criteria. The comparison of chromosome damage in PBL between exposed and control populations pointed out a significant increase of micronuclei in the exposed group, correlated with the length of employment. Results confirm that smoking is the principal confounding factor for the responses. In conclusion, our results are indicative of a potential genotoxic risk related to the complex occupational exposure in petroleum refineries, despite the measures adopted in the plants, and corroborate the need to increase safety measures to avoid exposure to chemical agents. Environ. Mol. Mutagen. 2011. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
3. Sancini A, Tomei G, Ciarrocca M, Pimpinella B, Samperi I, Fiaschetti M, Scimitto L, Tasciotti Z, Caciari T, Tomei F. Professional exposure to urban stressors and effects on urinary metanephrines. Toxicol Ind Health. 2011 Jan 18. [Epub ahead of print]
Department of Occupational Medicine, University of Rome Sapienza, Rome, Italy.
Abstract
The aim of the study is to assess whether occupational exposure to urban stressors could cause alterations in urinary metanephrines levels in traffic policemen vs administrative staff of municipal police. A total of 258 subjects were included in the study: 129 traffic policemen exposed to urban stressors (68 males and 61 females) and 129 controls (68 males and 61 females). Urinary metanephrines mean levels were significantly higher in male traffic policemen compared to controls (p < 0.01). No significant differences were in female traffic policemen compared to controls. In the control group, urinary metanephrines mean levels were significantly higher in females compared to males (p < 0.01). There were no significant differences in urinary metanephrines mean levels in female traffic policemen vs male traffic policemen. The increase in urinary metanephrines mean levels observed in male exposed compared to controls could be related to chronic occupational exposure to low doses of chemical, physical and psychosocial urban stressors.
4.Campo L, Cattaneo A, Consonni D, Scibetta L, Costamagna P, Cavallo DM, Bertazzi PA, Fustinoni S. Urinary methyl tert-butyl ether and benzene as biomarkers of exposure to urban traffic. Environ Int. 2011 Feb;37(2):404-11. Epub 2010 Dec 4.
Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, Università degli Studi di Milano and Department of Preventive Medicine, Fondazione IRCCS Ca' Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Milan, Italy.

Abstract
Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and benzene are added to gasoline to improve the combustion process and are found in the urban environment as a consequence of vehicular traffic. Herein we evaluate urinary MTBE (MTBE-U) and benzene (BEN-U) as biomarkers of exposure to urban traffic. Milan urban policemen (130 total) were investigated in May, July, October, and December for a total of 171 work shifts. Personal exposure to airborne benzene and carbon monoxide (CO), and atmospheric data, were measured during the work shift, while personal characteristics were collected by a questionnaire. A time/activity diary was completed by each subject during the work shift. Spot urine samples were obtained for the determination of MTBE-U and BEN-U. Median personal exposure to CO and airborne benzene were 3.3 mg/m(3) and 9.6 μg/m(3), respectively; median urinary levels in end-of-shift (ES) samples were 147 ng/L (MTBE-U) and 207 ng/L (BEN-U). The time spent on traffic duty at crossing was about 40% of work time. Multiple linear regression models, taking into account within-subject correlations, were applied to investigate the role of urban pollution, atmospheric conditions, job variables and personal characteristics on the level of biomarkers. MTBE-U was influenced by the month of sampling and positively correlated to the time spent in traffic guarding, CO exposure and atmospheric pressure, while negatively correlated to wind speed (R(2) for total model 0.63, P<0.001). BEN-U was influenced by the month and smoking habit, and positively correlated to urinary creatinine; moreover, an interaction between CO and smoking was found (R(2)=0.62, P<0.001). These results suggest that MTBE-U is a reliable marker for assessing urban traffic exposure, while BEN-U is determined mainly by personal characteristics.

TUMORI NASO-SINUSALI

Cantu G, Solero CL, Mariani L, Lo Vullo S, Riccio S, Colombo S, Pompilio M, Perrone F, Formillo P, Quattrone P. Intestinal type adenocarcinoma of the ethmoid sinus in wood and leather workers: A retrospective study of 153 cases. Head Neck. 2011 Apr;33(4):535-42. doi: 10.1002/hed.21485.
Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Unit, Fondazione I.R.C.C.S. Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori, Milan, Italy. giulio.cantu@istitutotumori.mi.it.

Abstract
BACKGROUND: The purpose of our study was to identify the role of work exposure to organic dusts in patients with malignant paranasal sinus tumors.
METHODS: We analyzed all patients surgically treated for a malignant paranasal sinus tumor at our institution between 1987 and 2006. All patients were specifically asked about their occupational history. The tumor site was classified as maxillary or ethmoid sinus. Adenocarcinomas were divided into intestinal type (ITAC) and non-ITAC.
RESULTS: The sample included 345 patients with ethmoid sinus and 301 maxillary sinus. Regarding the ethmoid sinus, we found an exposure to organic dusts in 148 of 153 patients with ITAC, in 3 of 16 patients with non-ITAC adenocarcinoma, and in 10 of 176 patients with other tumors. Regarding the maxillary sinus, we found an exposure in 1 of 20 patients with non-ITAC adenocarcinoma and in 4 of 281 patients with other histologies.
CONCLUSION: Our study demonstrates that only ethmoid ITACs have an indisputable relationship with the exposure to organic dusts. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck, 2011.

FUMO DI TABACCO

Ficarra MG, Gualano MR, Capizzi S, Siliquini R, Liguori G, Manzoli L, Briziarelli L, Parlato A, Cuccurullo P, Bucci R, Piat SC, Masanotti G, de Waure C, Ricciardi W, La Torre G. Tobacco use prevalence, knowledge and attitudes among Italian hospital healthcare professionals. Eur J Public Health. 2011 Feb;21(1):29-34. Epub 2010 Mar 10.
Institute of Hygiene, Catholic University of the Sacred Heart, Rome, Italy.

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Healthcare professionals play a key role in tobacco use prevention because they are considered as model by patients. This multicenter study was aimed to evaluate smoking prevalence, knowledge and attitudes towards tobacco among Italian hospital professionals.
METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out using a questionnaire administered to healthcare professionals in seven Italian hospitals, to investigate personal and occupational data, knowledge, attitudes, job setting, clinical activities, smoking habits and pattern for current smokers. Potential predictors of current smoking habits were evaluated using multiple logistic regressions.
RESULTS: Sample population was comprised of 1082 health professionals (51.4% females; mean age was 37.3 years: 25.3% were nurses, 24.5% medical doctors, 17.1% students and 33.1% other healthcare workers). Smoking prevalence was 44%. Among responders, 67.7% considered healthcare professional as a model for citizens, 90.5% declared to see colleagues smoking cigarettes inside the hospital (47.4% in the dependents' toilets, 33.4% in the department kitchens and 4.7% in the patient room). Multivariate analysis showed that healthcare professionals working in Naples had a higher risk to be smokers in comparison to Rome [odds ratio (OR) = 2.29; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.40-3.73]. Compared to medical doctors, post-graduate students (OR = 3.42; 95% CI: 1.81-6.44), nurses (OR = 2.48; 95% CI 1.51-4.08), nursing students (OR = 1.91; 95% CI 1.08-3.38) and auxiliary personnel (OR = 2.72; 95% CI 1.51-4.88), showed a higher likelihood of smoking.
CONCLUSIONS: Among Italian hospital personnel there is a paradoxically large prevalence of smokers, higher than in the general population. Interventions aimed for the development of an adequate culture of health promotion, among these professionals, are urgently needed.