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  • Andrea Ranzi1

  1. ARPA, Modena
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Ricerca bibliografica periodo dal 16 marzo 2012 al 31 maggio 2012

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Stringa: pollution[Title/Abstract] OR pollutant[Title/Abstract] OR pollutants[Title/Abstract] OR climate change[Title/Abstract] AND ("italy"[MeSH Terms] OR "italy"[All Fields]) AND ("2012/03/16"[PDAT] : "2012/05/31"[PDAT])
1. Mangia C, Gianicolo EA, Bruni A, Vigotti MA, Cervino M. Spatial variability of air pollutants in the city of Taranto, Italy and its potential impact on exposure assessment. Environ Monit Assess. 2012 May 16. [Epub ahead of print]
CNR ISAC Institute of Atmospheric Sciences and Climate, National Research Council, ISAC-CNR s.p. Lecce-Monteroni km 1.2, 73100, Lecce, Italy, c.mangia@isac.cnr.it.
Abstract
Epidemiological studies typically use monitored air pollution data from a single station or as averaged data from several stations to estimate population exposure. In industrialized urban areas, this approach may present critical issues due to the spatial complexities of air pollutants which are emitted by different sources. This study focused on the city of Taranto, which is one of the most highly industrialized cities in southern Italy. Epidemiological studies have revealed several critical situations in this area, in terms of mortality excess and short-term health effects of air pollution. The aims of this paper are to study the variability of air pollutants in the city of Taranto and to interpret the results in relation to the applicability of the data in assessing population exposure. Meteorological and pollution data (SO2, NO2, PM10), measured simultaneously and continuously during the period 2006-2010 in five air quality stations, were analyzed. Relative and absolute spatial concentration variations were investigated by means of statistical indexes. Results show significant differences among stations. The highest correlation between stations was observed for PM10 concentrations, while critical values were found for NO2. The worst values were observed for the SO2 series. The high values of 90th percentile of differences between pairs of monitoring sites for the three pollutants index suggest that mean concentrations differ by large amounts from site to site. The overall analysis supports the hypothesis that various parts of the city are differently affected by the different emission sources, depending on meteorological conditions. In particular, analysis revealed that the influence of the industrial site may be primarily identified with the series of SO2 data which exhibit higher mean concentration values and positive correlations with wind intensity when the monitoring station is downwind from the industrial site. Results suggest evaluating the population exposure to air pollutants in industrialized cities by taking into account the possible zones of influence of different emission sources. More research is needed to identify an indicator, which ought to be a synthesis of several pollutants, and take into account the meteorological variables. PMID: 22585403 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Breve commento a cura di Andrea Ranzi
Il presente lavoro affronta il delicato e fondamentale problema del miglior utilizzo dei dati ambientali nella valutazione dell’esposizione della popolazione residente. Partendo da un’analisi fatta sulla realtà di Taranto, che presenta criticità e peculiarità ben note, si discute su quanto ci sia da lavorare sulla caratterizzazione della rappresentatività spazio-temporale dei dati ambientali. Le analisi di impatto dovranno tenere sempre più in considerazione le possibili misclassificazioni legate a ciò, e opportune considerazioni (e, dove possibile, quantificazioni) sull’incertezza che gli indicatori di esposizione scelti si portano dietro sarà sempre più utile e necessaria in una valutazione complessiva dei risultati ottenuti.

2. Pasetto R, Zona A, Pirastu R, Cernigliaro A, Dardanoni G, Pollina Addario S, Scondotto S, Comba P. Mortality and morbidity study of petrochemical employees in a polluted site. Environ Health. 2012 May 18;11(1):34. [Epub ahead of print]
Abstract
BACKGROUND: The area of Gela was included among the 57 Italian polluted sites of national interest for environmental remediation because of its widespread contamination from a petrochemical complex. The present study investigates mortality and morbidity of the cohort of Gela petrochemical workers with the aim of disentangling occupational from residential risk.
METHODS: Mortality was assessed for 5,627 men hired from 1960, year of the plant start-up, to 1993; it was followed up for vital status in the period 1960-2002. Morbidity was analysed for 5,431 workers neither dead nor lost to follow-up from 1960 to 2001 and was based on Hospital Discharge Records in the period 2001-2006. The work experience was classified in terms of job categories such as blue collars, white collars, and both - workers who shifted from blue to white collar (95%) or vice versa. An ad hoc mobility model was applied to define qualitative categories of residence in Gela, as residents and commuters. Standardized Mortality Ratios (SMRs) and Mortality Rate Ratios (MRRs) were computed, the latter by using a Poisson regression model. Morbidity was analyzed in terms of Hospital Discharge Odds Ratios (HDORs) through a logistic regression model. While performing the internal comparisons, white collars was the reference category for the job analysis, and commuters was the reference category for the residential analysis.
RESULTS: In the light of epidemiological evidence about health risk from petrochemical industries in both occupational and environmental settings, and/or on the basis of information about occupational and residential contamination and health risk in the area of Gela, noteworthy results are shown for lung cancer [MRR: 2.11 (IC 90%; 0.96-4.63) in blue collars; 1.71 (1.09-2.69) in residents], respiratory diseases [HDOR: 2.0 (1.0-3.0) in blue collars; 1.4 (0.96-2.06) in residents] and genitourinary diseases [HDOR: 1.34 (1.06-1.68) in blue collars; 1.23 (1.04-1.45) in residents].
CONCLUSIONS: The results support a role of the exposures in the occupational and residential settings, the latter due to the local ascertained contamination, in affecting the workers' health. These results underline the urgent need of water, soil, air and food-chain monitoring programs, to discover active sources of exposure and consequently define public health interventions.

Breve commento a cura di Andrea Ranzi
Il lavoro di Pasetto e colleghi è di grande attualità, andando a valutare lo stato di salute dei lavoratori di un’azienda petrolchimica collocata in uno dei 57 siti di interesse nazionale (area di Gela). L’approccio utilizzato ha permesso di valutare sia l’esposizione occupazionale che quella residenziale, riscontrando eccessi per le malattie dell’apparato genito-urinario, le malattie respiratorie e il tumore al polmone, coerenti con le evidenze segnalate dalla letteratura.

3. Colais P, Faustini A, Stafoggia M, Berti G, Bisanti L, Cadum E, Cernigliaro A, Mallone S, Pacelli B, Serinelli M, Simonato L, Vigotti MA, Forastiere F; EPIAIR Collaborative Group. Collaborators: Bisant L, Randi G, Rognoni M, Simonato L, Tessari R, Berti G, Cadum E, Chiusolo M, Galassi C, Grosa M, Ivaldi C, Pelosini R, Poncino S, Caranci N, Miglio R, Pace G, Pacelli B, Pandolfi P, Scarnato C, Zanini G, Accetta G, Baccini M, Barchielli A, Biggeri A, Chellini E, Grechi D, Mallone S, Nuvolone D, Baldacci S, Serinelli M, Viegi G, Vigotti MA, Colais P, Faustini A, Forastiere F, Perucci CA, Stafoggia M, Primerano R, Serinelli M, Vigotti MA, Dessì P, Cernigliaro A, Scondotto S. Particulate air pollution and hospital admissions for cardiac diseases in potentially sensitive subgroups. Epidemiology. 2012 May;23(3):473-81.
Department of Epidemiology, Regional Health Service, Lazio Region, via S. Costanza 53, Rome, Italy.
Abstract
BACKGROUND Although numerous studies have provided evidence of an association between ambient air pollution and acute cardiac morbidity, little is known regarding susceptibility factors. METHODS We conducted a time-stratified case-crossover study in 9 Italian cities between 2001 and 2005 to estimate the short-term association between airborne particles with aerodynamic diameter <10 μm (PM10) and cardiac hospital admissions, and to identify susceptible groups. We estimated associations between daily PM10 and all cardiac diseases, acute coronary syndrome, arrhythmias and conduction disorders, and heart failure for 167,895 hospitalized subjects ≥ 65 years of age. Effect modification was assessed for age, sex, and a priori-defined hospital diagnoses (mainly cardiovascular and respiratory conditions) from the previous 2 years as susceptibility factors. RESULTS The increased risk of cardiac admissions was 1.0% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.7% to 1.4%) per 10 μg/m PM10 at lag 0. The effect was slightly higher for heart failure (lag 0, 1.4% [0.7% to 2.0%]) and acute coronary syndrome (lag 0-1, 1.1% [0.4% to 1.9%]) than for arrhythmias (lag 0, 1.0% [0.2% to 1.8%]). Women were at higher risk of heart failure (2.0% [1.2% to 2.8%]; test for interaction, P = 0.022), whereas men were at higher risk of arrhythmias (1.9% [0.8% to 3.0%]; test for interaction, P = 0.020). Subjects aged 75-84 years were at higher risk of admissions for coronary events (2.6% [1.5% to 3.8%]; test for interaction, P = 0.001). None of the identified chronic conditions was a clear marker of susceptibility. CONCLUSIONS An important effect of PM10 on hospitalizations for cardiac diseases was found in Italian cities. Sex and older age were susceptibility factors.
4. Bertoldi M, Borgini A, Tittarelli A, Fattore E, Cau A, Fanelli R, Crosignani P. Health effects for the population living near a cement plant: an epidemiological assessment. Environ Int. 2012 May;41:1-7. Epub 2012 Jan 14.
Environmental Epidemiology and Cancer Registry Unit, National Cancer Institute, Via G. Venezian 1, 20133 Milano, Italy. martina.bertoldi@istitutotumori.mi.it
Abstract
Epidemiological studies have shown the association between the exposure to air pollution and several adverse health effects. To evaluate the possible acute health effects of air pollution due to the emissions of a cement plant in two small municipalities in Italy (Mazzano and Rezzato), a case-control study design was used. The risks of hospital admission for cardiovascular or respiratory diseases for increasing levels of exposure to cement plant emissions were estimated, separately for adults (age>34 years) and children (0-14 years). Odds ratios (OR) were estimated using unconditional regression models. Attributable risks were also calculated. Statistically significant risks were found mainly for respiratory diseases among children: OR 1.67 (95% CI 1.08-2.58) for the moderately exposed category (E1), OR 1.88 (95% CI 1.19-2.97) for the highly exposed category (E2), with an attributable risk of 38% of hospital admissions due to the exposure to cement plant exhausts. Adults had a weaker risk: OR 1.38 (95% CI 1.18-1.61) for group E1, OR 1.31 (95% CI 1.10-1.56) for group E2; the attributable risk was 23%. Risks were higher for females and for the age group 35-64. These results showed an association between the exposure to plant emissions and the risk of hospital admission for cardiovascular or respiratory causes; this association was particularly strong for children.
5. Girardi P, Marcon A, Rava M, Pironi V, Ricci P, de Marco R. Spatial analysis of binary health indicators with local smoothing techniques The Viadana study. Sci Total Environ. 2012 Jan 1;414:380-6. Epub 2011 Nov 17.
Unit of Epidemiology and Medical Statistics, Department of Public Health and Community Medicine, University of Verona, Verona, Italy. paolo.girardi@univr.it
Abstract
INTRODUCTION: When pollution data from a monitoring network is not available, mapping the spatial distribution of disease can be useful to identify populations at risk and to suggest a potential role for suspected emission sources. We aimed at obtaining a continuous spatial representation of the prevalence of symptoms that are potentially associated with the exposure to the pollutants emitted from the wood factories in the children who live in the district of Viadana (Northern Italy).
METHODS: In 2006, all the parents of the children aged 3-14 years residing in the Viadana district (n = 3854), filled in a questionnaire on respiratory symptoms, irritation symptoms of the eyes and skin, use of health services. The children's residential addresses were also collected and geocoded. Generalized additive models and local weighted regression (LOWESS) were used to estimate the distribution of the symptoms, to test for spatial trends of the symptoms' prevalence and to control for potential confounders. Permutation tests were used to identify the areas of significantly increased risk ("hot spots").
RESULTS: The prevalence of respiratory symptoms, eye symptoms and the use of health services showed a statistically significant spatial variation (p < 0.05), but skin symptoms did not. Symptoms' prevalence was lower in the northern part of the district, where no wood factories were present, and it was higher in the southern part, where the two big chipboard industries were located. Hot spots were identified fairly near to one of the two chipboard industries in the district.
CONCLUSIONS: The north-to-south trend in the prevalence of respiratory and eye symptoms, but not of skin symptoms, as well as the location of hot spots, are consistent with the potential exposure to air pollutants both emitted by the wood factories and related to traffic. In these "high risk areas" monitoring of pollution and preventive actions are clearly needed.
6. De Felice B, Nappi C, Zizolfi B, Guida M, Di Spiezio Sardo A, Bifulco G, Guida M. Telomere shortening in women resident close to waste landfill sites. Gene. 2012 May 25;500(1):101-6. Epub 2012 Mar 20.
Abstract
Several studies demonstrate links between environmental stress and index of reduced health, including risk factors for cardiovascular disease, reduced immune function and cancer risks. We investigated the hypothesis that pollution, as an environmental stress, impacts health by modulating the rate of cellular aging in healthy pregnant women. Our research looked at the effects that illegal waste sites have on the localized population of pregnant women in Campania, Italy. As is often the case in illegal dumping, the effects on the population are often seen well before knowing what specific agents in the soil and water are responsible. Here we provide evidence that the pollution in this region is significantly associated with higher oxidative stress, shorter telomere length and lower telomerase activity, which are known determinants of cell senescence and aging-related meiotic dysfunction in women, in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from healthy pregnant women, subjected to therapeutic abortion in the second trimester of pregnancy. These findings may have implications for understanding how, at the cellular level, environmental stress may promote earlier onset of age-related diseases.

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