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  • Andrea Ranzi1

  1. ARPA, Modena
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Ricerca bibliografica periodo 2 agosto 2011 – 15 ottobre 2011

Per leggere le caratteristiche di questa ROUTINE di ricerca clicca qui

Database: Pubmed/MEDline
Stringa:
(pollution[Title/Abstract] OR pollutant[Title/Abstract] OR pollutants[Title/Abstract] OR climate change[Title/Abstract]) AND ("italy"[MeSH Terms] OR "italy"[All Fields]) AND ("epidemiology"[Subheading] OR "epidemiology"[All Fields] OR "epidemiology"[MeSH Terms] OR "health effects"[All Fields]) AND ("2011/08/02"[PDAT] : "2011/10/15"[PDAT])
Criteri di esclusione degli articoli: Articoli su riviste italiane, Articoli su E&P, Editoriali e Review narrative

Di ogni articolo è disponibile l'abstract. Per visualizzarlo basta cliccare sul titolo.

1. Cesaroni G, Boogaard H, Jonkers S, Porta D, Badaloni C, Cattani G, Forastiere F, Hoek G. Health benefits of traffic-related air pollution reduction in different socioeconomic groups: the effect of low-emission zoning in Rome. Occup Environ Med. 2011 Aug 7.
Department of Epidemiology, Lazio Regional Health Service, Rome, Italy.
Abstract
Objectives Few studies have assessed the effects of policies aimed to reduce traffic-related air pollution. The aims of this study were to evaluate the impact, in terms of air quality and health effects, of two low-emission zones established in Rome in the period 2001-2005 and to assess the impact by socioeconomic position (SEP) of the population. Methods We evaluated the effects of the intervention on various stages in the full-chain model, that is, pressure (number and age distribution of cars), emissions, PM(10) and NO(2) concentrations, population exposure and years of life gained (YLG). The impact was evaluated according to a small-area indicator of SEP. Results During the period 2001-2005, there was a decrease in the total number of cars (-3.8%), NO(2) and PM(10) emissions and concentrations (from 22.9 to 17.4 μg/m(3) for NO(2) and from 7.8 to 6.2 μg/m(3) for PM(10)), and in the residents' exposure. In the two low-emission zones, there was an additional decrease in air pollution concentrations (NO(2): -4.13 and -2.99 μg/m(3); PM(10): -0.70 and -0.47 μg/m(3)). As a result of the policy, 264 522 residents living along busy roads gained 3.4 days per person (921 YLG per 100 000) for NO(2) reduction. The gain was larger for people in the highest SEP group (1387 YLG per 100 000) than for residents in the lowest SEP group (340 YLG per 100 000). Conclusion The traffic policy in Rome was effective in reducing traffic-related air pollution, but most of the health gains were found in well-off residents.

Breve commento a cura di Andrea Ranzi
L’articolo di Giulia Cesaroni e colleghi riguarda una stima dell’impatto di politiche di riduzione del traffico nella città di Roma. L’attenzione degli autori si sofferma su come l’impatto sia differente a seconda della posizione socioeconomica della popolazione. La capacità di “misurazione del problema e valutazione dell’impatto delle azioni” è una delle tre raccomandazioni che la Commissione dell’OMS sui determinanti sociali ha individuato come esortazioni generali di base per un’azione di governo volta alla riduzione delle disuguaglianze sociali di salute, comprese quelle che interpellano la responsabilità dei rischi ambientali. I risultati legati agli indicatori socioeconomici mettono in luce come azioni volte alla mitigazione dell’inquinamento in ambito urbano (e di conseguenza dell’esposizione della popolazione generale) possano comportare, a fronte di un beneficio generale di salute pubblica, una divaricazione della forbice legata alle differenze socioeceonomiche, relativamente al fattore di rischio contrastato. Si conferma così l’utilità dell’inserimento della covariata sociale nelle valutazioni delle politiche di contrasto ai fattori di rischio ambientali.

2. Lodovici M, Bigagli E. Oxidative stress and air pollution exposure. J Toxicol. 2011;2011:487074. Epub 2011 Aug 13.
Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Florence, Viale Pieraccini 6, 50139 Florence, Italy.

Abstract
Air pollution is associated with increased cardiovascular and pulmonary morbidity and mortality. The mechanisms of air pollution-induced health effects involve oxidative stress and inflammation. As a matter of fact, particulate matter (PM), especially fine (PM(2.5), PM < 2.5 μm) and ultrafine (PM(0.1), PM < 0.1 μm) particles, ozone, nitrogen oxides, and transition metals, are potent oxidants or able to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS). Oxidative stress can trigger redox-sensitive pathways that lead to different biological processes such as inflammation and cell death. However, it does appear that the susceptibility of target organ to oxidative injury also depends upon its ability to upregulate protective scavenging systems. As vehicular traffic is known to importantly contribute to PM exposure, its intensity and quality must be strongly relevant determinants of the qualitative characteristics of PM spread in the atmosphere. Change in the composition of this PM is likely to modify its health impact.

3. Faustini A, Stafoggia M, Berti G, Bisanti L, Chiusolo M, Cernigliaro A, Mallone S, Primerano R, Scarnato C, Simonato L, Vigotti MA, Forastiere F; EpiAir Collaborative Group. The relationship between ambient particulate matter and respiratory mortality: a multi-city study in Italy. Eur Respir J. 2011 Sep;38(3):538-47. Epub 2011 Jan 13.
Epidemiology Dept, Regional Health Service of Lazio, Rome, Italy. faustini@asplazio.it
Abstract
The association of air pollutants with natural and respiratory mortality has been consistently reported. However, several aspects of the relationship between particulate matter with a 50% cut-off aerodynamic diameter of 10 μm (PM(10)) and respiratory mortality require further investigation. The aim of the present study was to assess the PM(10)-respiratory mortality association in Italy and examine potentially susceptible groups. All deaths from natural (n=276,205) and respiratory (n=19,629) causes among subjects aged >= 35 yrs in 10 northern, central and southern Italian cities in 2001-2005 were included in the study. Pollution data for PM(10), nitrogen dioxide and ozone were also obtained. A time-stratified case-crossover analysis was carried out. Different cumulative lags were selected to analyse immediate, delayed, prolonged and best-time effects of air pollution. The shape of the exposure-response curve was analysed. Age, sex, chronic conditions and death site were investigated as potential effect modifiers. We found a 2.29% (95% CI 1.03-3.58%) increase in respiratory mortality at 0-3 days lag. The increase in respiratory mortality was higher in summer (7.57%). The exposure-response curve had a linear shape without any threshold. Sex and chronic diseases modified the relationship between particular matter (PM) and respiratory mortality. The effect of PM on respiratory mortality was stronger and more persistent than that on natural mortality. Females and chronic disease sufferers were more likely to die of a respiratory disease caused by air pollution than males and healthy people.

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