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Ambiente

  • Andrea Ranzi1

  1. Arpa, Modena

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Ricerca bibliografica periodo dal 16 settembre – 30 novembre 2014

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(pollut*[All Fields] OR pollutant[All fields] OR pollutants [All Fields] OR "climate change"[All fields]) AND ("italy"[MeSH Terms] OR "italy"[All Fields]) AND ("epidemiology"[Subheading] OR epid*[All Fields] OR "epidemiology"[MeSH Terms]) AND ("2014/09/16"[PDAT] : "2014/11/30"[PDAT])
1. Baccini M(1), Grisotto L, Catelan D, Consonni D, Bertazzi PA, Biggeri A. Commuting-Adjusted Short-Term Health Impact Assessment of Airborne Fine Particles with Uncertainty Quantification via Monte Carlo Simulation. Environ Health Perspect. 2015 Jan;123(1):27-33. doi: 10.1289/ehp.1408218. Epub 2014 Oct 17.
Author information: (1)Department of Statistics, Informatics and Applications "G. Parenti," University of Florence, Florence, Italy.

Abstract BACKGROUND: Exposure to air pollution is associated with a short-term increase in mortality, and this field has begun to focus on health impact assessment. OBJECTIVES: Our aim was to estimate the impact of PM10 on mortality within 2 days from the exposure in the Italian region of Lombardy for the year 2007, at the municipality level, examining exposure entailed by daily intermunicipality commuting and accounting for uncertainty propagation. METHODS: We combined data from different sources to derive probabilistic distributions for all input quantities used to calculate attributable deaths (mortality rates, PM10 concentrations, estimated PM10 effects, and commuting flows) and applied a Monte Carlo procedure to propagate uncertainty and sample the distribution of attributable deaths for each municipality. RESULTS: We estimated that annual average PM10 concentrations above the World Health Organization-recommended threshold of 20 μg/m3 were responsible for 865 short-term deaths (80% credibility interval: 475, 1,401), 26% of which were attributable to PM10 above the European Union limit of 40 μg/m3. Reducing annual average PM10 concentrations > 20 μg/m3 by 20% would have reduced the number of attributable deaths by 36%. The largest estimated impacts were along the basin of the Po River and in the largest cities. Commuting contributed to the spatial distribution of the estimated impact. CONCLUSIONS: Our estimates, which incorporated uncertainty quantification, indicate that the short-term impact of PM10 on mortality in Lombardy in 2007 was notable, and that reduction in air pollution would have had a substantial beneficial effect on population health. Using commuting data helped to identify critical areas for prioritizing intervention.

Breve commento a cura di Andrea Ranzi
Le stime di impatto sulla salute dell’inquinamento atmosferico sono suscettibili di variazioni dovute a diversi fattori di incertezza, dalle esposizioni alle stime di effetto. Il presente articolo indaga un ulteriore aspetto di potenziale imprecisione, di non facile valutazione ma di grande rilevanza, soprattutto nella stima degli impatti a breve termine: la mobilità della popolazione verso i grandi centri urbani. La rilevanza del lavoro è sottolineata anche dall’editoriale dedicato all’articolo, presente sullo stesso numero della rivista, nel quale si sottolinea come lo studio abbia mostrato che l'impatto sulla salute dell'inquinamento atmosferico non è uniforme nella regione indagata (Lombardia), ma è concentrato nel capoluogo e in altre grandi città. L'inquinamento atmosferico nelle grandi città ha anche un impatto sulla salute dei pendolari provenienti da altri comuni della regione. Il commento di Michela Baccini, riportato nell’editoriale, fa riflettere: in un mondo interconnesso è difficile essere immune dagli effetti negativi dell'inquinamento, anche se il nostro luogo di residenza è "pulito", qualora le necessità di lavoro o altro richiedano spostamenti verso punti attrattori della vita sociale.

2. Bollati V(1), Iodice S, Favero C, Angelici L, Albetti B, Cacace R, Cantone L, Carugno M, Cavalleri T, De Giorgio B, Dioni L, Fustinoni S, Hoxha M, Marinelli B, Motta V, Patrini L, Pergoli L, Riboldi L, Rizzo G, Rota F, Sucato S, Tarantini L, Tirelli AS, Vigna L, Bertazzi P, Pesatori AC. Susceptibility to particle health effects, miRNA and exosomes: rationale and study protocol of the SPHERE study. BMC Public Health. 2014 Nov 4;14:1137. doi: 10.1186/1471-2458-14-1137.

Abstract BACKGROUND: Despite epidemiological findings showing increased air pollution related cardiovascular diseases (CVD), the knowledge of the involved molecular mechanisms remains moderate or weak. Particulate matter (PM) produces a local strong inflammatory reaction in the pulmonary environment but there is no final evidence that PM physically enters and deposits in blood vessels. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) and their miRNA cargo might be the ideal candidate to mediate the effects of PM, since they could be potentially produced by the respiratory system, reach the systemic circulation and lead to the development of cardiovascular effects.The SPHERE ("Susceptibility to Particle Health Effects, miRNAs and Exosomes") project was granted by ERC-2011-StG 282413, to examine possible molecular mechanisms underlying the effects of PM exposure in relation to health outcomes. METHODS/DESIGN: The study population will include 2000 overweight (25 < BMI < 30 kg/cm2) or obese (BMI ≥ 30 kg/cm2) subjects presenting at the Center for Obesity and Work (Fondazione IRCCS Ca' Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Milan, Italy).Each subject donates blood, urine and hair samples. Extensive epidemiological and clinical data are collected. Exposure to PM is assigned to each subject using both daily PM10 concentration series from air quality monitors and pollutant levels estimated by the FARM (Flexible air Quality Regional Model) modelling system and elaborated by the Regional Environmental Protection Agency.The recruitment period started in September 2010 and will continue until 2015. At December 31, 2013 we recruited 1250 subjects, of whom 87% lived in the province of Milan.Primary study outcomes include cardiometabolic and respiratory health effects. The main molecular mechanism we are investigating focuses on EV-associated microRNAs. DISCUSSION: SPHERE is the first large study aimed to explore EVs as a novel potential mechanism of how air pollution exposure acts in a highly susceptible population. The rigorous study design, the availability of banked biological samples and the potential to integrate epidemiological, clinical and molecular data will also furnish a powerful base for investigating different complementary molecular mechanisms. Our findings, if confirmed, could lead to the identification of potentially reversible alterations that might be considered as possible targets for new diagnostic and therapeutic interventions.

5. de Hoogh K(1), Korek M(2), Vienneau D(3), Keuken M(4), Kukkonen J(5), Nieuwenhuijsen MJ(6), Badaloni C(7), Beelen R(8), Bolignano A(9), Cesaroni G(7), Pradas MC(6), Cyrys J(10), Douros J(11), Eeftens M(12), Forastiere F(7), Forsberg B(13), Fuks K(14), Gehring U(8), Gryparis A(15), Gulliver J(2), Hansell AL(16), Hoffmann B(17), Johansson C(18), Jonkers S(4), Kangas L(5), Katsouyanni K(19), Künzli N(3), Lanki T(20), Memmesheimer M(21), Moussiopoulos N(11), Modig L(13), Pershagen G(22), Probst-Hensch N(3), Schindler C(3), Schikowski T(23), Sugiri D(14), Teixidó O(24), Tsai MY(25), Yli-Tuomi T(20), Brunekreef B(26), Hoek G(8), Bellander T(27). Comparing land use regression and dispersion modelling to assess residential exposure to ambient air pollution for epidemiological studies. Environ Int. 2014 Dec;73:382-92. doi: 10.1016/j.envint.2014.08.011. Epub 2014 Sep 16.

Abstract BACKGROUND: Land-use regression (LUR) and dispersion models (DM) are commonly used for estimating individual air pollution exposure in population studies. Few comparisons have however been made of the performance of these methods. OBJECTIVES: Within the European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE) we explored the differences between LUR and DM estimates for NO2, PM10 and PM2.5. METHODS: The ESCAPE study developed LUR models for outdoor air pollution levels based on a harmonised monitoring campaign. In thirteen ESCAPE study areas we further applied dispersion models. We compared LUR and DM estimates at the residential addresses of participants in 13 cohorts for NO2; 7 for PM10 and 4 for PM2.5. Additionally, we compared the DM estimates with measured concentrations at the 20-40 ESCAPE monitoring sites in each area. RESULTS: The median Pearson R (range) correlation coefficients between LUR and DM estimates for the annual average concentrations of NO2, PM10 and PM2.5 were 0.75 (0.19-0.89), 0.39 (0.23-0.66) and 0.29 (0.22-0.81) for 112,971 (13 study areas), 69,591 (7) and 28,519 (4) addresses respectively. The median Pearson R correlation coefficients (range) between DM estimates and ESCAPE measurements were of 0.74 (0.09-0.86) for NO2; 0.58 (0.36-0.88) for PM10 and 0.58 (0.39-0.66) for PM2.5. CONCLUSIONS: LUR and dispersion model estimates correlated on average well for NO2 but only moderately for PM10 and PM2.5, with large variability across areas. DM predicted a moderate to large proportion of the measured variation for NO2 but less for PM10 and PM2.5.

6. Conti S(1), Lafranconi A(2), Zanobetti A(3), Fornari C(4), Madotto F(5), Schwartz J(6), Cesana G(7). Cardiorespiratory treatments as modifiers of the relationship between particulate matter and health: A case-only analysis on hospitalized patients in Italy. Environ Res. 2015 Jan;136:491-9. doi: 10.1016/j.envres.2014.09.007. Epub 2014 Nov 26.

Abstract BACKGROUND: A few panel and toxicological studies suggest that health effects of particulate matter (PM) might be modified by medication intake, but whether this modification is confirmed in the general population or for more serious outcomes is still unknown. OBJECTIVES: We carried out a population-based pilot study in order to assess how pre-hospitalization medical treatments modify the relationship between PM<10μm in aerodynamic diameter (PM10) and the risk of cardiorespiratory admission. METHODS: We gathered information on hospitalizations for cardiorespiratory causes, together with pre-admission pharmacological treatments, that occurred during 2005 in seven cities located in Lombardy (Northern Italy). City-specific PM10 concentrations were measured at fixed monitoring stations. Each treatment of interest was analyzed separately through a case-only approach, using generalized additive models accounting for sex, age, comorbidities, temperature and simultaneous intake of other drugs. Analyses were stratified by season and, if useful, by age and sex. RESULTS: Our results showed a higher effect size for PM10 on respiratory admissions in subjects treated with theophylline (Odds Ratio (OR) of treatment for an increment of 10μg/m(3) in PM10 concentration: 1.119; 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 1.013-1.237), while for cardiovascular admissions treatment with cardiac therapy (OR: 0.967, 95% CI: 0.940-0.995) and lipid modifying agents (OR: 0.962, 95% CI: 0.931-0.995) emerged as a protective factor, especially during the warm season. Evidence of a protective effect against the pollutant was found for glucocorticoids and respiratory admissions. CONCLUSIONS: Our study showed that the treatment with cardiac therapy and lipid modifying agents might mitigate the effect of PM10 on cardiovascular health, while the use of theophylline seems to enhance the effect of the pollutant, possibly due to confounding by indication. It is desirable to extend the analyses to a larger population.

7. Jedrychowski WA(1), Perera FP(2), Maugeri U(3), Majewska R(4), Mroz E(4), Flak E(4), Camann D(5), Sowa A(4), Jacek R(4). Long term effects of prenatal and postnatal airborne PAH exposures on ventilatory lung function of non-asthmatic preadolescent children. Prospective birth cohort study in Krakow. Sci Total Environ. 2015 Jan 1;502:502-9. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2014.09.051. Epub 2014 Oct 6.

Abstract The main goal of the study was to test the hypothesis that prenatal and postnatal exposures to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are associated with depressed lung function in non-asthmatic children. The study sample comprises 195 non-asthmatic children of non-smoking mothers, among whom the prenatal PAH exposure was assessed by personal air monitoring in pregnancy. At the age of 3, residential air monitoring was carried out to evaluate the residential PAH exposure indoors and outdoors. At the age of 5 to 8, children were given allergic skin tests for indoor allergens; and between 5 and 9 years lung function testing (FVC, FEV05, FEV1 and FEF25-75) was performed. The effects of prenatal PAH exposure on lung function tests repeated over the follow-up were adjusted in the General Estimated Equation (GEE) model for the relevant covariates. No association between FVC with prenatal PAH exposure was found; however for the FEV1 deficit associated with higher prenatal PAH exposure (above 37ng/m(3)) amounted to 53mL (p=0.050) and the deficit of FEF25-75 reached 164mL (p=0.013). The corresponding deficits related to postnatal residential indoor PAH level (above 42ng/m(3)) were 59mL of FEV1 (p=0.028) and 140mL of FEF25-75 (p=0.031). At the higher residential outdoor PAH level (above 90ng/m(3)) slightly greater deficit of FEV1 (71mL, p=0.009) was observed. The results of the study suggest that transplacental exposure to PAH compromises the normal developmental process of respiratory airways and that this effect is compounded by postnatal PAH exposure.

8. Sancini G(1), Farina F(1), Battaglia C(2), Cifola I(3), Mangano E(3), Mantecca P(4), Camatini M(4), Palestini P(1). Health risk assessment for air pollutants: alterations in lung and cardiac gene expression in mice exposed to Milano winter fine particulate matter (PM2.5). PLoS One. 2014 Oct 8;9(10):e109685. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0109685. eCollection 2014.
Author information: (1)Department of Health Science, POLARIS Research Center, University of Milano-Bicocca, Monza, Italy. (2)Department of Medical Biotechnologies and Translational Medicine (BIOMETRA), Università degli Studi di Milano, Segrate, Italy; Institute of Biomedical Technology, CNR, Segrate, Italy. (3)Institute of Biomedical Technology, CNR, Segrate, Italy. (4)Department of Environmental Science, POLARIS Research Center, University of Milano-Bicocca, Milano, Italy.

Abstract Oxidative stress, pulmonary and systemic inflammation, endothelial cell dysfunction, atherosclerosis and cardiac autonomic dysfunction have been linked to urban particulate matter exposure. The chemical composition of airborne pollutants in Milano is similar to those of other European cities though with a higher PM2.5 fraction. Milano winter fine particles (PM2.5win) are characterized by the presence of nitrate, organic carbon fraction, with high amount of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and elements such as Pb, Al, Zn, V, Fe, Cr and others, with a negligible endotoxin presence. In BALB/c mice, we examined, at biochemical and transcriptomic levels, the adverse effects of repeated Milano PM2.5win exposure in lung and heart. We found that ET-1, Hsp70, Cyp1A1, Cyp1B1 and Hsp-70, HO-1, MPO respectively increased within lung and heart of PM2.5win-treated mice. The PM2.5win exposure had a strong impact on global gene expression of heart tissue (181 up-regulated and 178 down-regulated genes) but a lesser impact on lung tissue (14 up-regulated genes and 43 down-regulated genes). Focusing on modulated genes, in lung we found two- to three-fold changes of those genes related to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons exposure and calcium signalling. Within heart the most striking aspect is the twofold to threefold increase in collagen and laminin related genes as well as in genes involved in calcium signaling. The current study extends our previous findings, showing that repeated instillations of PM2.5win trigger systemic adverse effects. PM2.5win thus likely poses an acute threat primarily to susceptible people, such as the elderly and those with unrecognized coronary artery or structural heart disease. The study of genomic responses will improve understanding of disease mechanisms and enable future clinical testing of interventions against the toxic effects of air pollutant.

9. Guignet D(1), Alberini A. Can Property Values Capture Changes in Environmental Health Risks? Evidence from a Stated Preference Study in Italy and the United Kingdom. Risk Anal. 2014 Sep 26. doi: 10.1111/risa.12282. [Epub ahead of print]
Author information: (1)National Center for Environmental Economics, US Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, USA.

Abstract Hedonic models are a common nonmarket valuation technique, but, in practice, results can be affected by omitted variables and whether homebuyers respond to the assumed environmental measure. We undertake an alternative stated preference approach that circumvents these issues. We examine how homeowners in the United Kingdom and Italy value mortality risk reductions by asking them to choose among hypothetical variants of their home that differ in terms of mortality risks from air pollution and price. We find that Italian homeowners hold a value of a statistical life (VSL) of €6.4 million, but U.K. homeowners hold a much lower VSL (€2.1 million). This may be because respondents in the United Kingdom do not perceive air pollution where they live to be as threatening, and actually live in cities with relatively low air pollution. Italian homeowners value a reduction in the risk of dying from cancer more than from other causes, but U.K. respondents do not hold such a premium. Lastly, respondents who face higher baseline risks, due to greater air pollution where they live, hold a higher VSL, particularly in the United Kingdom. In both countries, the VSL is twice as large among individuals who perceive air pollution where they live as high.

10. Rizzo AM(1), Corsetto PA(1), Farina F(2), Montorfano G(1), Pani G(1), Battaglia C(3), Sancini G(2), Palestini P(2). Repeated intratracheal instillation of PM10 induces lipid reshaping in lung parenchyma and in extra-pulmonary tissues. PLoS One. 2014 Sep 26;9(9):e106855. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0106855. eCollection 2014.
A uthor information: (1)Department of Pharmacological and Biomolecular Sciences (DiSFEB), Laboratory of Membrane Biochemistry and Applied Nutrition, Università degli Studi di Milano, Milano, Italy. (2)Department of Health Science (DISS), POLARIS Research Center, University of Milano-Bicocca, Monza, Italy. (3)Department of Medical Biotechnologies and Translational Medicine (BIOMETRA), Laboratory of Genomic Technologies Università degli Studi di Milano, Segrate, Italy.

Abstract Adverse health effects of air pollution attributed mainly to airborne particulate matter have been well documented in the last couple of decades. Short term exposure, referring to a few hours exposure, to high ambient PM10 concentration is linked to increased hospitalization rates for cardiovascular events, typically 24 h after air pollution peaks. Particulate matter exposure is related to pulmonary and cardiovascular diseases, with increased oxidative stress and inflammatory status. Previously, we have demonstrated that repeated intratracheal instillation of PM10sum in BALB/c mice leads to respiratory tract inflammation, creating in lung a condition which could potentially evolve in a systemic toxic reaction. Additionally, plasma membrane and tissue lipids are easily affected by oxidative stress and directly correlated with inflammatory products. With this aim, in the present investigation using the same model, we analyzed the toxic potential of PM10sum exposure on lipid plasma membrane composition, lipid peroxidation and the mechanisms of cells protection in multiple organs such as lung, heart, liver and brain. Obtained results indicated that PM10 exposure led to lung lipid reshaping, in particular phospholipid and cholesterol content increases; concomitantly, the generation of oxidative stress caused lipid peroxidation. In liver we found significant changes in lipid content, mainly due to an increase of phosphatidylcholine, and in total fatty acid composition with a more pronounced level of docosahexaenoic acid; these changes were statistically correlated to lung molecular markers. Heart and brain were similarly affected; heart was significantly enriched in triglycerides in half of the PM10sum treated mice. These results demonstrated a direct involvement of PM10sum in affecting lipid metabolism and oxidative stress in peripheral tissues that might be related to the serious systemic air-pollution effects on human health.

11. Parodi S(1), Santi I, Casella C, Puppo A, Montanaro F, Fontana V, Pescetto M, Stagnaro E. Risk of leukaemia and residential exposure to air pollution in an industrial area in Northern Italy: a case-control study. Int J Environ Health Res. 2014 Sep 23:1-12. [Epub ahead of print]
Author information: (1)a Institute of Electronics, Computer and Telecommunication Engineering , National Research Council of Italy , Genoa , Italy. <

Abstract Leukaemia risk in adult populations exposed to environmental air pollution is poorly investigated. We have carried out a population-based case-control study in an area that included a fossil fuel power plant, a coke oven and two big chemical industries. Information on residential history and several risk factors for leukaemia was obtained from 164 cases, diagnosed between 2002 and 2005, and 279 controls. A higher risk for subjects residing in polluted areas was observed, but statistical significance was not reached (adjusted OR = 1.11 and 1.56 for subjects living in moderately and in heavily polluted zones, respectively, p = 0.190). Results suggest a possible aetiological role of residential air pollution from industrial sites on the risk of developing leukaemia in adult populations. However, the proportion of eligible subjects excluded from the study and the lack of any measure of air pollution prevent definitive conclusions from being drawn.

12. Feretti D(1), Ceretti E(1), De Donno A(2), Moretti M(3), Carducci A(4), Bonetta S(5), Marrese MR(6), Bonetti A(7), Covolo L(1), Bagordo F(2), Villarini M(3), Verani M(4), Schilirò T(5), Limina RM(1), Grassi T(2), Monarca S(3), Casini B(8), Carraro E(5), Zani C(1), Mazzoleni G(9), Levaggi R(10), Gelatti U(1); MAPEC_LIFE Study Group; MAPEC LIFE Study Group. Collaborators: Compiani S, Donato F, Festa A, Viola GC, Zerbini I, Guido M, Idolo A, Serio F, Tumolo MR, Verri T, Dominici L, Fatigoni C, Levorato S, Peverini M, Vannini S, Bruni B, Caponi E, Donzelli G, Gilli G, Pignata C, Bonizzoni S, Furia C, Braga F, Codenotti R, Colombi P, Lini D, Mari E. Monitoring air pollution effects on children for supporting public health policy: the protocol of the prospective cohort MAPEC study. BMJ Open. 2014 Sep 16;4(9):e006096. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2014-006096.

Abstract INTRODUCTION: Genotoxic biomarkers have been studied largely in adult population, but few studies so far have investigated them in children exposed to air pollution. Children are a high-risk group as regards the health effects of air pollution and some studies suggest that early exposure during childhood can play an important role in the development of chronic diseases in adulthood. The objective of the project is to evaluate the associations between the concentration of urban air pollutants and biomarkers of early biological effect in children, and to propose a model for estimating the global risk of early biological effects due to air pollutants and other factors in children. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Two biomarkers of early biological effects, DNA damage by the comet assay and the micronuclei (MN) test, will be investigated in oral mucosa cells of 6-8-year-old children. Concurrently, some toxic airborne pollutants (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) and nitro-PAH) and in vitro air mutagenicity and toxicity in ultra-fine air particulates (PM0.5) will be evaluated. Furthermore, demographic and socioeconomic variables, other sources of exposures to air pollutants and lifestyle variables will be assessed by a structured questionnaire. The associations between sociodemographic, environmental and other exposure variables and biomarkers of early biological effect using univariate and multivariate models will be analysed. A tentative model for calculating the global absolute risk of having early biological effects caused by air pollution and other variables will be proposed. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The project has been approved by the Ethics Committees of the local Health Authorities. The results will be communicated to local Public Health Agencies, for supporting educational programmes and health policy strategies. LIFE+2012 Environment Policy and Governance. LIFE12 ENV/IT/000614.

13. Guo Y(1), Gasparrini A, Armstrong B, Li S, Tawatsupa B, Tobias A, Lavigne E, de Sousa Zanotti Stagliorio Coelho M, Leone M, Pan X, Tong S, Tian L, Kim H, Hashizume M, Honda Y, Guo YL, Wu CF, Punnasiri K, Yi SM, Michelozzi P, Saldiva PH, Williams G. Global variation in the effects of ambient temperature on mortality: a systematic evaluation. Epidemiology. 2014 Nov;25(6):781-9. doi: 10.1097/EDE.0000000000000165.

Abstract BACKGROUND: Studies have examined the effects of temperature on mortality in a single city, country, or region. However, less evidence is available on the variation in the associations between temperature and mortality in multiple countries, analyzed simultaneously. METHODS: We obtained daily data on temperature and mortality in 306 communities from 12 countries/regions (Australia, Brazil, Thailand, China, Taiwan, Korea, Japan, Italy, Spain, United Kingdom, United States, and Canada). Two-stage analyses were used to assess the nonlinear and delayed relation between temperature and mortality. In the first stage, a Poisson regression allowing overdispersion with distributed lag nonlinear model was used to estimate the community-specific temperature-mortality relation. In the second stage, a multivariate meta-analysis was used to pool the nonlinear and delayed effects of ambient temperature at the national level, in each country. RESULTS: The temperatures associated with the lowest mortality were around the 75th percentile of temperature in all the countries/regions, ranging from 66th (Taiwan) to 80th (UK) percentiles. The estimated effects of cold and hot temperatures on mortality varied by community and country. Meta-analysis results show that both cold and hot temperatures increased the risk of mortality in all the countries/regions. Cold effects were delayed and lasted for many days, whereas heat effects appeared quickly and did not last long. CONCLUSIONS: People have some ability to adapt to their local climate type, but both cold and hot temperatures are still associated with increased risk of mortality. Public health strategies to alleviate the impact of ambient temperatures are important, in particular in the context of climate change.

14. Fuertes E(1), MacIntyre E(2), Agius R(3), Beelen R(4), Brunekreef B(5), Bucci S(6), Cesaroni G(6), Cirach M(7), Cyrys J(8), Forastiere F(6), Gehring U(4), Gruzieva O(9), Hoffmann B(10), Jedynska A(11), Keuken M(11), Klümper C(12), Kooter I(11), Korek M(9), Krämer U(12), Mölter A(3), Nieuwenhuijsen M(7), Pershagen G(9), Porta D(6), Postma DS(13), Simpson A(14), Smit HA(15), Sugiri D(12), Sunyer J(16), Wang M(4), Heinrich J(17). Associations between particulate matter elements and early-life pneumonia in seven birth cohorts: results from the ESCAPE and TRANSPHORM projects. Int J Hyg Environ Health. 2014 Nov;217(8):819-29. doi: 10.1016/j.ijheh.2014.05.004. Epub 2014 May 29.

Abstract Evidence for a role of long-term particulate matter exposure on acute respiratory infections is growing. However, which components of particulate matter may be causative remains largely unknown. We assessed associations between eight particulate matter elements and early-life pneumonia in seven birth cohort studies (N total=15,980): BAMSE (Sweden), GASPII (Italy), GINIplus and LISAplus (Germany), INMA (Spain), MAAS (United Kingdom) and PIAMA (The Netherlands). Annual average exposure to copper, iron, potassium, nickel, sulfur, silicon, vanadium and zinc, each respectively derived from particles with aerodynamic diameters ≤ 10 μm (PM10) and 2.5 μm (PM2.5), were estimated using standardized land use regression models and assigned to birth addresses. Cohort-specific associations between these exposures and parental reports of physician-diagnosed pneumonia between birth and two years were assessed using logistic regression models adjusted for host and environmental covariates and total PM10 or PM2.5 mass. Combined estimates were calculated using random-effects meta-analysis. There was substantial within and between-cohort variability in element concentrations. In the adjusted meta-analysis, pneumonia was weakly associated with zinc derived from PM10 (OR: 1.47 (95% CI: 0.99, 2.18) per 20 ng/m(3) increase). No other associations with the other elements were consistently observed. The independent effect of particulate matter mass remained after adjustment for element concentrations. In conclusion, associations between particulate matter mass exposure and pneumonia were not explained by the elements we investigated. Zinc from PM10 was the only element which appeared independently associated with a higher risk of early-life pneumonia. As zinc is primarily attributable to non-tailpipe traffic emissions, these results may suggest a potential adverse effect of non-tailpipe emissions on health.

15. Jedynska A(1), Hoek G, Wang M, Eeftens M, Cyrys J, Keuken M, Ampe C, Beelen R, Cesaroni G, Forastiere F, Cirach M, de Hoogh K, De Nazelle A, Nystad W, Declercq C, Eriksen KT, Dimakopoulou K, Lanki T, Meliefste K, Nieuwenhuijsen MJ, Yli-Tuomi T, Raaschou-Nielsen O, Brunekreef B, Kooter IM. Development of Land Use Regression Models for Elemental, Organic Carbon, PAH, and Hopanes/Steranes in 10 ESCAPE/TRANSPHORM European Study Areas. Environ Sci Technol. 2014 Dec 16;48(24):14435-44. doi: 10.1021/es502568z. Epub 2014 Nov 6.
Author information: (1)TNO, Netherlands Organization for Applied Scientific Research, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

Abstract Land use regression (LUR) models have been used to model concentrations of mainly traffic-related air pollutants (nitrogen oxides (NOx), particulate matter (PM) mass or absorbance). Few LUR models are published of PM composition, whereas the interest in health effects related to particle composition is increasing. The aim of our study was to evaluate LUR models of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), hopanes/steranes, and elemental and organic carbon (EC/OC) content of PM2.5. In 10 European study areas, PAH, hopanes/steranes, and EC/OC concentrations were measured at 16-40 sites per study area. LUR models for each study area were developed on the basis of annual average concentrations and predictor variables including traffic, population, industry, natural land obtained from geographic information systems. The highest median model explained variance (R(2)) was found for EC - 84%. The median R(2) was 51% for OC, 67% for benzo[a]pyrene, and 38% for sum of hopanes/steranes, with large variability between study areas. Traffic predictors were included in most models. Population and natural land were included frequently as additional predictors. The moderate to high explained variance of LUR models and the overall moderate correlation with PM2.5 model predictions support the application of especially the OC and PAH models in epidemiological studies.

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