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  • Andrea Ranzi1

  1. Arpa, Modena

Ricerca bibliografica periodo dal 1 aprile – 15 giugno 2013

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Stringa: (pollution[Title/Abstract] OR pollutant[Title/Abstract] OR pollutants[Title/Abstract] OR climate change[Title/Abstract] ) AND ("italy"[MeSH Terms] OR "italy"[All Fields]) AND ("2013/04/01"[PDAT] : "2013/06/15"[PDAT])

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1. Peluso M, Munnia A, Ceppi M, Giese RW, Catelan D, Rusconi F, Godschalk RW, Biggeri A. Malondialdehyde-deoxyguanosine and bulky DNA adducts in schoolchildren resident in the proximity of the Sarroch industrial estate on Sardinia Island, Italy. Mutagenesis. 2013 May;28(3):315-21. doi: 10.1093/mutage/get005. Epub 2013 Feb 27.
Cancer Risk Factor Branch, Cancer Prevention and Research Institute, Via il Vecchio 2, 50139 Florence, Italy. m.peluso@ispo.toscana.it

Abstract Air quality is a primary environmental concern in highly industrialised areas, with potential health effects in children residing nearby. The Sarroch industrial estate in Cagliari province, Sardinia Island, Italy, hosts the world's largest power plant and the second largest European oil refinery and petrochemical park. This industrial estate produces a complex mixture of air pollutants, including benzene, heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Thus, we conducted a cross-sectional study to evaluate the prevalence of malondialdehyde-deoxyguanosine adducts in the nasal epithelium of 75 representative children, aged 6-14 years, attending primary and secondary schools in Sarroch in comparison with 73 rural controls. Additionally, the levels of bulky DNA adducts were analysed in a subset of 62 study children. DNA damage was measured by (32)P-postlabelling methodologies. The air concentrations of benzene and ethyl benzene were measured in the school gardens of Sarroch and a rural village by diffusive samplers. Outdoor measurements were also performed in other Sarroch areas and in the proximity of the industrial estate. The outdoor levels of benzene and ethyl benzene were significantly higher in the school gardens of Sarroch than in the rural village. Higher concentrations were also found in other Sarroch areas and in the vicinity of the industrial park. The mean levels of malondialdehyde-deoxyguanosine adducts per 10(8) normal nucleotides ± standard error (SE) were 74.6±9.1 and 34.1±4.4 in the children from Sarroch and the rural village, respectively. The mean ratio was 2.53, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.71-2.89, P < 0.001, versus rural controls. Similarly, the levels of bulky DNA adducts per 10(8) normal nucleotides ± SE were 2.9±0.4 and 1.6±0.2 in the schoolchildren from Sarroch and the rural village, respectively. The means ratio was 1.90, 95% CI: 1.25-2.89, P = 0.003 versus rural controls. Our study indicates that children residing near the industrial estate have a significant increment of DNA damage.

Breve commento a cura di Andrea Ranzi
Altro tassello conoscitivo nella questione, a dir poco attuale, sui rischi per la salute legati alla residenza in prossimità di grandi distretti industriali. Il sito in questione è il complesso petrolchimico di Sarroch in Sardegna, che produce una complessa miscela di inquinanti, quali benzene, metalli pesanti e idrocarburi policiclici aromatici. I livelli outdoor di benzene e etil-benzene sono risultati significativamente più alti nei giardini della scuola di Sarroch, rispetto al villaggio rurale preso come area di confronto. Sempre partendo da queste due aree sono stati selezionati 75 e 73 bambini di età compresa fra i 6 e i 14 anni. L’outcome in questione è importante: i bambini di Sarroch presentano incrementi significativi di danni al Dna rispetto al campione di confronto estratto dall’area rurale. La necessità di riuscire a conciliare tutela della salute e diritto al lavoro, la scelta del migliore modello di sviluppo per queste terre soprattutto in questi tempi di crisi, è quanto mai rilevante e indifferibile.

2. Samoli E, Stafoggia M, Rodopoulou S, Ostro B, Declercq C, Alessandrini E, Díaz J, Karanasiou A, Kelessis AG, Le Tertre A, Pandolfi P, Randi G, Scarinzi C, Zauli-Sajani S, Katsouyanni K, Forastiere F; the MEDPARTICLES Study group. Associations between Fine and Coarse Particles and Mortality in Mediterranean Cities: Results from the MED-PARTICLES Project. Environ Health Perspect. 2013 May 17. [Epub ahead of print]
Department of Hygiene, Epidemiology and Medical Statistics, Medical School, University of Athens, Athens, Greece.

Abstract BACKGROUND: Few studies have investigated the independent health effects of different size fractions of particulate matter (PM), in multiple locations, especially in Europe. OBJECTIVES: We estimated the short-term effects of PM with aerodynamic diameter less than 10μm (PM10), less than 2.5μm (PM2.5), and between 2.5 and 10μm (PM2.5-10) on all-cause, cardiovascular and respiratory mortality in 10 European Mediterranean metropolitan areas within the MED-PARTICLES project. METHODSs: We analyzed data from each city using Poisson regression models, and combined city-specific estimates to derive overall effect estimates. We evaluated the sensitivity of our estimates to co-pollutant exposures and city-specific model choice, and investigated effect modification by age, sex, and season. We applied distributed lag and threshold models to investigate temporal patterns of associations. RESULTS: A 10-μg/m3 increase in PM2.5 was associated with a 0.55% (95% CI: 0.27, 0.84%) increase in all-cause mortality (0-1 day cumulative lag), and a 1.91% increase (95%CI: 0.71, 3.12%) in respiratory mortality (0-5 day lag). In general, associations were stronger for cardiovascular and respiratory mortality than all-cause mortality, during warm versus cold months, and among those ≥ 75 versus <75 years of age. Associations with PM2.5-10 were positive but not statistically significant in most analyses, while associations with PM10 seemed to be driven by PM2.5 CONCLUSIONS: We found evidence of adverse effects of PM2.5 on mortality outcomes in the European Mediterranean region. Associations with PM2.5-10 were positive but smaller in magnitude. Associations were stronger for respiratory mortality when cumulative exposures were lagged over 0-5 days, and were modified by season and age.

Breve commento a cura di Andrea Ranzi
Il progetto MED-PARTICLES (Particles size and composition in Mediterranean countries: geographical variability and short-term health effects), finanziato all’interno del programma LIFE Environment, ha valutato gli effetti a breve termine dell’esposizione a particolato in 10 città dell’area Mediterranea (Milano, Torino, Bologna, Parma, Reggio Emilia, Modena, Roma, Marsiglia, Madrid e Barcellona). Il progetto si chiuderà il 31 agosto di quest’anno e questo primo lavoro ha studiato le associazioni fra mortalità e polveri fini e coarse (PM2.5 e PM2.5-10). I risultati depongono per un ruolo più consistente delle polveri fini, e mostrano associazioni più alte nel periodo estivo, aspetto già evidenziato in precedenti lavori. Le abitudini di vita legate al clima favorevole, il traffico, gli aspetti relativi alla formazione del particolato secondario, la presenza di componenti nel particolato legate a incendi incontrollati o a trasporto di polveri sahariane, rendono peculiare la composizione delle polveri in queste aree, e sono alla base delle possibili interpretazioni dei risultati.

3. Marchetti P, Marcon A, Pesce G, Paolo G, Guarda L, Pironi V, Fracasso ME, Ricci P, de Marco R. Children living near chipboard and wood industries are at an increased risk of hospitalization for respiratory diseases: A prospective study. Int J Hyg Environ Health. 2013 Apr 6. pii: S1438-4639(13)00053-9. doi: 10.1016/j.ijheh.2013.03.015. [Epub ahead of print]
Unit of Epidemiology & Medical Statistics, Department of Public Health and Community Medicine, University of Verona, Italy. Electronic address: pierpaolo.marchetti@univr.it.

Abstract Pollutants emitted from wood processing factories may be harmful to the health of the population. The aim of this prospective cohort study was to evaluate whether proximity to wood factories was associated with the risk of hospital admissions in children living in the Viadana district (Italy), where two big chipboard industries and other smaller wood factories (sawmills, multi-strata layer manufacturing) are located. In 2006, children (3-14 years) living in the Viadana district were surveyed through a parental questionnaire (n=3854), their home/school addresses were geocoded and the distances to the wood industries were calculated. Hospital discharge records for the years 2007-2009 were obtained. Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to estimate the association between hospitalization rates and distance to the factories, adjusting for sex, age, nationality, parents' education, exposure to passive smoking and reported traffic near home. During the 3-year follow-up, the risk of hospitalization for all diagnoses (Hospitalization Hazard Ratio, HHR=1.55; 95% CI: 1.24-1.95) and for respiratory diseases (HHR=1.80; 95% CI: 1.14-2.86) was greater in the children living close (<2km) to the chipboard industries, with respect to the children who lived at ≥2km from any wood factory. The children living close to the smaller wood factories were also at increased risk of hospitalization for respiratory diseases (HHR=1.74; 95% CI: 1.06-2.85). This study highlights a health problem for the children living close to chipboard and wood factories in the Viadana district. Further research should develop accurate exposure models based on objective measurements of air pollution in order to confirm these findings.

Breve commento a cura di Andrea Ranzi
Interessante studio prospettico sui rischi legati alla residenza in prossimità di industrie del legno. Viadana (MN) ospita uno dei principali distretti industriali italiani per la lavorazione del legno. La formaldeide, utilizzata nell’industria del legno, e le polveri del legno hanno un elevato potere irritante e allergizzante. Lo studio ha valutato l’associazione tra residenza in prossimità delle industrie di lavorazione del legno e insorgenza di sintomi respiratori in bambini tra i 3 e i 14 anni. I risultati ottenuti, seppur tramite una misura proxy dell’esposizione quale la distanza, mostrano l’esistenza di rischi per la salute respiratoria nei bambini che vivono in prossimità di queste industrie.

4. Alessandrini ER, Stafoggia M, Faustini A, Gobbi GP, Forastiere F. Saharan dust and the association between particulate matter and daily hospitalisations in Rome, Italy. Occup Environ Med. 2013 Jun;70(6):432-4. doi: 10.1136/oemed-2012-101182. Epub 2013 Mar 15.
Department of Epidemiology, Lazio Regional Health Service, Rome, Italy. e.alessandrini@deplazio.it

Abstract INTRODUCTION: Outbreaks of Saharan dust have been shown to exacerbate the effect of particulate matter (PM) on mortality. Their role on PM-morbidity association is less clear. This study aims to evaluate the effect of Saharan dust on the PM-hospitalisations association in Rome, Italy. METHODS: We studied residents hospitalised in Rome between 2001 and 2004 and performed a time-series analysis to explore the effects of PM2.5, PM2.5-10 and PM10 on cardiac, cerebrovascular and respiratory emergency hospitalisations, respectively. Saharan dust days were identified by combining Light Detection and Ranging observations and analyses from operational models. We tested a dust-PM interaction to evaluate the hypothesis that the PM effect on hospitalisations would be enhanced on dust days. RESULTS: We studied 77 354, 26 557 and 31 620 hospitalisations for cardiac, cerebrovascular and respiratory diseases, respectively, providing effect estimates per IQR. PM2.5-10 was associated with cardiac diseases (3.93%; 95% CI 1.58 to 6.34). PM10 was associated with cardiac (3.37%; 95% CI 1.11 to 5.68), cerebrovascular (2.64%; 95% CI 0.06 to 5.29) and respiratory diseases (3.59%: 95% CI 0.18 to 7.12). No effect of PM2.5 was detected. Saharan dust modified the effect of the PM2.5-10 on respiratory hospitalisations, higher during dust days compared with dust-free days (14.63% vs -0.32%; p value of interaction=0.006). Saharan dust also increased the effect of PM10 on cerebrovascular diseases (5.04% vs 0.90%, p value of interaction=0.143). DISCUSSION: A clear enhanced effect of PM2.5-10 on respiratory diseases and of PM10 on cerebrovascular diseases emerged during Saharan dust outbreaks.

5. Wang M, Beelen R, Basagana X, Becker T, Cesaroni G, de Hoogh K, Dedele A, Declercq C, Dimakopoulou K, Eeftens M, Forastiere F, Galassi C,Gražulevičienė R, Hoffmann B, Heinrich J, Iakovides M, Künzli N, Korek M, Lindley S, Mölter A, Mosler G, Madsen C, Nieuwenhuijsen M, Phuleria H, Pedeli X, Raaschou-Nielsen O, Ranzi A, Stephanou E, Sugiri D, Stempfelet M, Tsai MY, Lanki T, Udvardy O, Varró MJ, Wolf K, Weinmayr G, Yli-Tuomi T, Hoek G,Brunekreef B. Evaluation of land use regression models for NO2 and particulate matter in 20 European study areas: the ESCAPE project. Environ Sci Technol. 2013 May 7;47(9):4357-64. doi: 10.1021/es305129t. Epub 2013 Apr 16.
Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences, Utrecht University, P.O. Box 80178, 3508 TD Utrecht, The Netherlands. M.Wang@uu.nl

Abstract Land use regression models (LUR) frequently use leave-one-out-cross-validation (LOOCV) to assess model fit, but recent studies suggested that this may overestimate predictive ability in independent data sets. Our aim was to evaluate LUR models for nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and particulate matter (PM) components exploiting the high correlation between concentrations of PM metrics and NO2. LUR models have been developed for NO2, PM2.5 absorbance, and copper (Cu) in PM10 based on 20 sites in each of the 20 study areas of the ESCAPE project. Models were evaluated with LOOCV and "hold-out evaluation (HEV)" using the correlation of predicted NO2 or PM concentrations with measured NO2 concentrations at the 20 additional NO2 sites in each area. For NO2, PM2.5 absorbance and PM10 Cu, the median LOOCV R(2)s were 0.83, 0.81, and 0.76 whereas the median HEV R(2) were 0.52, 0.44, and 0.40. There was a positive association between the LOOCV R(2) and HEV R(2) for PM2.5 absorbance and PM10 Cu. Our results confirm that the predictive ability of LUR models based on relatively small training sets is overestimated by the LOOCV R(2)s. Nevertheless, in most areas LUR models still explained a substantial fraction of the variation of concentrations measured at independent sites.

6. Babisch W, Pershagen G, Selander J, Houthuijs D, Breugelmans O, Cadum E, Vigna-Taglianti F, Katsouyanni K, Haralabidis AS, Dimakopoulou K, Sourtzi P,Floud S, Hansell AL Noise annoyance--a modifier of the association between noise level and cardiovascular health? Sci Total Environ. 2013 May 1;452-453:50-7. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2013.02.034. Epub 2013 Mar 15.
Federal Environment Agency, Berlin, Germany. wolfgang.babisch@uba.de

Abstract OBJECTIVES: The effect modifying impact of annoyance due to aircraft noise and road traffic noise on the relationships between the aircraft noise level and road traffic noise level on the prevalence of hypertension was investigated in 4861 subjects of the HYENA study (HYpertension and Exposure to Noise near Airports). METHODS: Different models were investigated either including the noise level and noise annoyance variables separately, or simultaneously, or together with an interaction term referring to the same noise source for the noise level and the noise annoyance. RESULTS: Significant effect modification was found with respect to the association between aircraft noise and hypertension. The association was stronger in more annoyed subjects. No clear interaction was found with respect to road traffic noise. The comparison of the magnitude of the main effects (per standard deviation or inter-quartile range) of noise level and noise annoyance variables revealed stronger associations with hypertension for the noise levels. CONCLUSION: There is some indication that the noise level has a stronger predictive meaning for the relationship between noise exposure and hypertension than the reported noise annoyance (main effects). The results from the Hyena study support the hypothesis that noise annoyance acts as an effect modifier of the relationship between the noise level and hypertension.

7. Byun HM, Panni T, Motta V, Hou L, Nordio F, Apostoli P, Bertazzi PA, Baccarelli AA. Effects of airborne pollutants on mitochondrial DNA methylation. Part Fibre Toxicol. 2013 May 8;10:18. doi: 10.1186/1743-8977-10-18.
Laboratory of Environmental Epigenetics, Exposure Epidemiology and Risk Program, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02115, USA. hmbyun@hsph.harvard.edu

Abstract BACKGROUND: Mitochondria have small mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) molecules independent from the nuclear DNA, a separate epigenetic machinery that generates mtDNA methylation, and are primary sources of oxidative-stress generation in response to exogenous environments. However, no study has yet investigated whether mitochondrial DNA methylation is sensitive to pro-oxidant environmental exposures. METHODS: We sampled 40 male participants (20 high-, 20 low-exposure) from each of three studies on airborne pollutants, including investigations of steel workers exposed to metal-rich particulate matter (measured as PM1) in Brescia, Italy (Study 1); gas-station attendants exposed to air benzene in Milan, Italy (Study 2); and truck drivers exposed to traffic-derived Elemental Carbon (EC) in Beijing, China (Study 3). We have measured DNA methylation from buffy coats of the participants. We measured methylation by bisulfite-Pyrosequencing in three mtDNA regions, i.e., the transfer RNA phenylalanine (MT-TF), 12S ribosomal RNA (MT-RNR1) gene and "D-loop" control region. All analyses were adjusted for age and smoking. RESULTS: In Study 1, participants with high metal-rich PM1 exposure showed higher MT-TF and MT-RNR1 methylation than low-exposed controls (difference = 1.41, P = 0.002); MT-TF and MT-RNR1 methylation was significantly associated with PM1 exposure (beta = 1.35, P = 0.025); and MT-RNR1 methylation was positively correlated with mtDNA copy number (r = 0.36; P = 0.02). D-loop methylation was not associated with PM1 exposure. We found no effects on mtDNA methylation from air benzene (Study 2) and traffic-derived EC exposure (Study 3). CONCLUSIONS: Mitochondrial MT-TF and MT-RNR1 DNA methylation was associated with metal-rich PM1 exposure and mtDNA copy number. Our results suggest that locus-specific mtDNA methylation is correlated to selected exposures and mtDNA damage. Larger studies are needed to validate our observations

8. Hou L, Zhang X, Dioni L, Barretta F, Dou C, Zheng Y, Hoxha M, Bertazzi PA, Schwartz J, Wu S, Wang S, Baccarelli AA. Inhalable particulate matter and mitochondrial DNA copy number in highly exposed individuals in Beijing, China: a repeated-measure study. Part Fibre Toxicol. 2013 Apr 29;10:17. doi: 10.1186/1743-8977-10-17.
Department of Preventive Medicine Feinberg, School of Medicine Northwestern University, Chicago, IL 60611, USA. l-hou@northwestern.edu

Abstract BACKGROUND: Mitochondria are both a sensitive target and a primary source of oxidative stress, a key pathway of air particulate matter (PM)-associated diseases. Mitochondrial DNA copy number (MtDNAcn) is a marker of mitochondrial damage and malfunctioning. We evaluated whether ambient PM exposure affects MtDNAcn in a highly-exposed population in Beijing, China. METHODS: The Beijing Truck Driver Air Pollution Study was conducted shortly before the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games (June 15-July 27, 2008) and included 60 truck drivers and 60 office workers. Personal PM2.5 and elemental carbon (EC, a tracer of traffic particles) were measured during work hours using portable monitors. Post-work blood samples were obtained on two different days. Ambient PM10 was averaged from 27 monitoring stations in Beijing. Blood MtDNAcn was determined by real-time PCR and examined in association with particle levels using mixed-effect models. RESULTS: In all participants combined, MtDNAcn was negatively associated with personal EC level measured during work hours (β=-0.059, 95% CI: -0.011; -0.0006, p=0.03); and 5-day (β=-0.017, 95% CI: -0.029;-0.005, p=0.01) and 8-day average ambient PM10 (β=-0.008, 95% CI: -0.043; -0.008, p=0.004) after adjusting for possible confounding factors, including study groups. MtDNAcn was also negatively associated among office workers with EC (β=-0.012, 95% CI: -0.022;-0.002, p=0.02) and 8-day average ambient PM10 (β=-0.030, 95% CI: -0.051;-0.008, p=0.007). CONCLUSIONS: We observed decreased blood MtDNAcn in association with increased exposure to EC during work hours and recent ambient PM10 exposure. Our results suggest that MtDNAcn may be influenced by particle exposures. Further studies are required to determine the roles of MtDNAcn in the etiology of particle-related diseases.

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